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72 terms

Hormone Function (all)

The basic function of all hormones in the human body.
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Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
causes thyroid gland cells to secrete T3 and T4; stimulates thyroid growth
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
WOMEN: initiates growth of ovarian follicles each month and stimulates ovulation; MEN: stimulates sperm production
Luteinizing hormone
WOMEN: regulates estrogen secretion and ovum development; MEN: testosterone production
Prolactin
targets the mammary glands stimulating them to produce breastmilk
Growth Hormone
affects size of an individual by promoting cell division, protein synthesis, and bone growth
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol
Lipotropin
promotes the utilization of fat by the body and is a precursor to the endorphins
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone
causes melanocytes to releases melanin (creates a tan)
Antidiuretic Hormone
promotes water retention, in high concentrations is also a vasoconstrictor. both of these effects raise the blood pressure
Oxytocin
induces contraction of the uterine muscles during childbirth and causes the mammary glands to eject milk during nursing
Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone
signals the pituitary gland to release TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone
this hormone stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete FSH and LH
Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone
signals the release of growth hormone by the anterior pituitary
Growth Hormone Inhibiting Hormone
inhibits the release of growth hormone by the anterior pituitary
Corticotropin Releasing Hormone
signals the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary
Prolactin Releasing Hormone
stimulates the release of prolactin from the pituitary
Orexin
plays a critical role in preventing abnormal consciousness transitions, particularly into REM sleep; may stimulate hunger
Dopamine
neurotransmitter; endocrine function = inhibits prolactin release
Melatonin
targets the brain to control circadian rhythms and circannual rhythms, and may be involved in maturation of sex organs
Triiodothyronine
thyroid hormone similar to thyroxine but with one less iodine atom per molecule and produced in smaller quantity
Thyroxine
hormone produced by the thyroid glands to regulate metabolism by controlling the rate of oxidation in cells
Calcitonin
Produced by the thyroid gland and decreases the blood calcium levels by stimulating calcium deposit in the bones (__________ keeps the bone in). The antagonist of the parathyroid hormone.
Parathyroid Hormone
Increases blood levels of calcium (stimulates breakdown of bone and rate at which calcium is removed from urine and absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract)
Thymosin
Produced by the thymus gland during childhood, this hormone stimulates T-lymphocyte development and differentiation.
Thymulin
involved in T-cell differentiation and enhancement of T and natural killer cell actions
Thymopoietin
Function not well understood, affects nuclear architecture, two receptors specific to __________ have been found on human T-cells
Insulin
Hormone produced by the pancreas that is released when stimulated by elevated glucose levels. This hormone decreases blood sugar levels by accelerating the transport of glucose into the body cells where it is oxidized for energy or converted to glycogen or fat for storage.
Glucagon
The antagonist of insulin. Its release is stimulated by low blood glucose levels. It stimulates the liver, its primary target organ, to break down its glycogen stores to glucose and subsequently to release glucose to the blood.
Amylin
Works w/ insulin & glucagon to maintain normal blood sugar
Epinephrine
adrenaline; activates a sympathetic nervous system by making the heart beat faster, stopping digestion, enlarging pupils, sending sugar into the bloodstream, preparing a blood clot faster
Norepinephrine
noradrenaline; chemical which is excitatory, similar to adrenaline, and affects arousal and memory; raises blood pressure by causing blood vessels to become constricted
Aldosterone
"salt-retaining hormone" which promotes the retention of Na+ by the kidneys. Na+ retention promotes water retention, which promotes a higher blood volume and pressure
Cortisol
secreted from the adrenal cortex, aids the body during stress by increasing glucose levels and suppressing immune system function
Relaxin
a hormone produced by the placenta prior to labor, causes the ligaments within the pelvis to loosen
Activin
antagonist to inhibin: enhances FSH biosynthesis and secretion, and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle
Inhibin
antagonist to activin: inhibits FSH synthesis and inhibits FSH secretion
Estradiol
The chief estrogen, females produce more than males, develops and maintains female secondary sex characteristics, important roles in menstruation and pregnancy
Estrone
a naturally occurring weak estrogenic hormone secreted by the mammalian ovary
Progesterone
One of the hormones produced by the ovaries. It works with estrogen to control the menstrual cycle. Also secreted to prepare and sustain the endometrium of the uterus for pregnancy
Anti-mullerian Hormone
In male embryos, turns off the development of a uterus and other female structures.
Testosterone
The male sex hormone produced by the testes which promotes the maturation of the reproductive system, development of the male secondary sex characteristics, and is responsible for sexual drive (libido)
Dihydrotestosterone
strongest androgen; principally responsible for masculinization in sexual differentiation
Dehydroepiandrosterone
a weak androgen; a precursor for other androgens and also some estrogens
Androstenedione
a weak androgen; the chief androgen produced by the adrenal cortex
Estriol
a major estrogen during pregnancy, the estrogen synthesized by the placenta
Human Placental Lactogen
This hormone ensures a sufficient supply of protein, glucose, and minerals are available to the fetus.
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
stimulates the corpus luteum to grow and secrete estrogen and progesterone at a higher rate; pregnancy tests work by detecting this in women's urine
Calcitriol
steroid hormone produced by the kidneys in response to the presence of PTH; stimulates calcium and phosphate ion absorption in the digestive tract; the active form of Vitamin D
Serotonin
a neurotransmitter involved in sleep, depression; precursor of melatonin
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
A peptide hormone secreted by cardiac atrial cells in response to atrial distension (increased blood flow); causes increased renal sodium excretion and as such lowers blood pressure (antagonizing aldosterone).
Cholecystokinin
hormone the small intestine secretes to stimulate release of pancreatic juice from pancreas and bile from gallbladder
Gastrins
released by the stomach in the presence of food; gastrin promotes muscular activity of the stomach as well as secretion of hydrochloric acid, pepsinogen, and mucus
Incretins
secreted by gastrointestinal tract; enhance glucose-stimulated release of insulin; inhibit glucagon
Secretin
A hormone secreted by the small intestine (duodenum) in response to low pH (e.g., from stomach acid). It promotes the release of bicarbonate from the pancreas to act as a buffer.
Ghrelin
a hunger-arousing hormone secreted by an empty stomach
Peptide YY
neuropeptide secreted in the small bowel and colon; signals appetite suppression
Neuropeptide Y
neurotransmitter found in several brain areas, most notably the hypothalamus, that stimulates eating behavior and reduces metabolism, promoting positive energy balance and weight gain
Leptin
a protein secreted by fat cells, when abundant causes the brain to increase metabolism and decreases hunger.
Adiponectin
appears to increase insulin effects (sensitivity); anti-inflammatory and anti-arthrogenic
Retinol Binding Protein 4
Function not well understood; secreted by adipocytes (fat cells) and may communicate signal low blood sugar; recently associated with the development of insulin insensitivity
Angiotensinogen
prohormone produced by the liver then converted by renin to angiotensin I, then that is converted by ACE to angiotensin II which is a vasoconstrictor
Angiotensin
vasoconstrictor that results in an increase in blood pressure
Insulin-Like Growth Factor
circulates in blood plasma and directly stimulates bone and cartilage growth
Hepcidin
inhibits iron uptake, prevent release of iron
Thrombopoietin
stimulates production of platelets
Erythropoietin
stimulates the production of red blood cells
Renin
enzyme that is produced by the kidney; important for blood pressure and volume regulation; catalyzes the conversion of circulating angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
Enkephalin
an innate brain and spinal cord endorphin that blocks pain signals (opioid)
Prostaglandins
have an immediate, short-term localized effect, involved in inflammation and pain, blood flow, and blood clotting, as well as other factors
Leukotrienes
fatty molecules of the immune system that regulate inflammation, especially in the lungs; they are heavily involved in the problems associated with asthma and bronchitis
Prostacyclins
chiefly prevents formation of the platelet plug in hemostasis (part of blood clotting); it does this by inhibiting platelet activation; antagonist to thromboxanes
Thromboxanes
a vasoconstrictor and a potent hypertensive agent, and it facilitates platelet aggregation; antagonist to prostacyclins