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Now that we've gotten that out of our way, let's begin today's lesson.
Instead, a single species, such as a hawk, might be a second-order consumer of field mice, a third-order consumer of frogs, and a fourth-order consumer of owls.
In most food webs, the relationships are so intricate that ecologists are still discovering the ways that these dynamic networks work.
A change in one species will affect the species that prey on it, but it can also trigger unexpected consequences in species with no direct link in the web.
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