SEHS Option C
Terms in this set (39)
Habitual Physical Activity
Any bodily movement produced by contraction of skeletal muscles that substantially increases energy expenditure
Subcategory of leisure-time physical activity in which planned, structured and repetitive bodily movements are performed to improve or maintain one or more component of physical fitness
Sport and Physical Fitness
Divided into health and skill related fitness. State of health and well-being
Disease associated with physical inactivity
Coronary Heart Disease and stroke
Major cause of both is atherosclerosis which is a hardening of the arteries due to the accumulation of fat, cholesterol and other substances in the walls of the arteries forming hard structures called plaque. This can cause blood clots. Blockage in brain leads to stroke, blockage in heart leads to a heart attack
High blood pressure- caused by high blood cholesterol. Risk factor of other things
Excess of body fat to the point where health is endangered. BMI can figure out obesity, risk factor of other things. Also determined using the waist girth. Waist girth is gender and ethnicity specific. Childhood obesity is associated with bullying and sophisticated imaging techniques can measure body fat but they are expensive and can expose people to radiation.
Type 2 Diabetes
People become insensitive to insulin. High insulin and blood glucose values. Major risk factor of other diseases. Obesity raises risk for this, type 2 happens over time. Treated with exercise, diet and oral medication.
When BMD is too low and you break bones easily. Weight bearing exercise helps reverse affect of losing BMD and prevent osteoporosis.
Studies show link between physical activity and hypo kinetic disease
Bus drivers vs tour guides on double decker buses in London. Drivers got more hypo kinetic disease.
Societal changes and hypo kinetic disease
Proliferation of the motor vehicle, changes in employment and working patters (sitting at a desk) and changes in diet such as the rise in fast food
Circulation of the blood in the blood vessels of the heart. Left and right coronary arteries come off the aorta. Splits at the aorta. left descend artery provides left side also along with circumflex artery. Left side supplies body, right the lung.
Risk Factors of CDV Disease
Cigarette smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, age, gender, ethnicity and family history
Cluster risk factors
When risk factors are clustered this is and and greatly increases chances of CDV disease. 3 risk factors is a metabolic syndrome
Health consequences of obesity
CDV disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, osteoarthritis(breakdown of cartilage), respiratory problems and cancers.
Body mass is determined by energy intake and energy expenditure.
Hormones are produced by the stomach and small intestine after eating and by adipose tissue (leptin) These pass appetite control centers in the brain which regulate the feelings of hunger and satiny.
Type 1 Diabetes
Autoimmune disorder resulting in the destruction of the insulin producing cells of the pancreas, manifests in young people. Treated with insulin
Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes
Obesity, family history, physical inactivity and diet high in saturated fat.
Health risks of diabetes
Blindness (retinopathy), kidney disease, nerve damage and CDV disease.
How does bone density change
Bone density increases from birth to around 35-45 years of age. Females achieve a lower per bone density than males. From this age onward bone density decreases
Risk of osteoporosis
Females have a higher risk than males. People over age 60 and those with family history are at risk too.
Long-term consequences of osteoporotic fractures
Loss of independence, development of secondary complications because of long hospital stays and pneumonia.
Risk factors of osteoporosis
Lack of dietary calcium, cigarette smoking, slim build, lack of estrogen associated with early menopause, female triad (eating disorder) and physical inactivity
Physical Activity and bone health
Weight-bearing physical activity is essential for bone health but intensive training in weight-conscious athletes gives rise to low body weight and eating disorders leading to menstrual dysfunction and osteoporosis. Changes in bone density are site specific and resistance training results in greater changes than endurance training. Weight bearing exercise in children is important
Physical Activity guidelines for good health
Adults should do 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity or 75 minutes of vigorous. Muscle strengthening should be done twice a week
Aims of exercise in individuals with hypo kinetic disease
Make most of limited function capacities, provide relief from symptoms, reduce the need for medication, reduce risk of disease reoccurrence and help overcome social problems
Barriers to physical activities
Uncontrolled disease state, hazards of exercise, musculoskeletal injuries and triggering of other health issues
A state of emotional or affective arousal of varying, and not permanent, duration. Feelings of elation or happiness lasting several hours or even a few days.
Effects of exercise on mood
Exercise is one of the most effective methods of alleviating a bad mood, research supports the use of exercise in modifying fatigue, anger, anxiety, depression, and enhancing positive moods of vigor, clear thinking, energy, alertness and increased sense of well being
How exercise enhances psychological well-being
No single theory explains the process fully- an interaction between both physiological and psychological factors underpin the process.
Increase in cerebral blood flow, changes in rain neurotransmitters, increase in VO2 max and delivery of oxygen to cerebral tissues, reductions in muscular tension and structural changes in the brain
Distraction from daily hassles and routine, enhanced feeling of control, feeling of competency, positive social interactions and improved self-esteem
Role of exercise in reducing effects of anxiety and depression
It reduces both
Acute effects of exercise state anxiety, compounding effect of intensity and duration of exercise and chronic effects of exercise on trait anxiety.
Clinical condition which can be treated by medicine. No casual link has been established, only correlation relationship. nature of exercise program (enjoyable, aerobic or rhythmic, absence of interpersonal competition, closed and predictable environment
Personal and environmental barriers to physical activity
personal factors- demographics, cognitive values and past behaviors. Environmental Factors- social environment, physical environment, characteristics of physical activity offered, leader qualities and cultural norms with ethnic groups
Strategies for enhancing adherence to exercise
Environmental approaches- prompts, choice. Reinforcement- rewards fro attendance, external feedback, self-monitoring. Goal setting. Social Support- Role of significant others, joining in, adjusting routines, transportation and providing equipment.
Negative aspects of exercise adherence
Negative addiction to exercise- life choices and relationship issues. Symptoms of negative exercise- stereotyped pattern with a regular schedule of once or more daily, increased priority of exercise, negative mood affect wth withdrawal ,increased tolerance to exercise and having an urge to exercise all the time but not realizing it.