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Grape-like structures or sacs where Gas Exchange takes place. End structure of the bronchial. Surrounded by a blood capillary. Thin walled.


Reduces the surface tension of the alveolus and prevents it from collapsing after each breath.


Give shape to the lungs. Where oxygen diffuses into the cardiovascular system.


Contains the Heart. Good to know.


The right contains three lobes; the left contains two lobes; Base lies in the diaphragm.

Medulla Oblongata and Pons

Responsible for the basic rhythm and depth of respiration.


Increased levels of Carbon Dioxide:. Carbon Dioxide in the blood is carbonic acid:

Stress and Anxiety

When dealing with patients with respiratory impairment or acute/chronic respiratory or cardiac conditions the nurse should also consider physical and emotional responses correlated; Inquire the patient about:

Signs and Symptoms of Hypoxia

Apprehension, anxiety, restlessness; decreased ability to concentrate; disorientation; increased fatigue; vertigo; increased rate and depth of respirations and then slow and shallow:.

Assessment: Objective Data

Assessment of the respiratory system begins anteriorly and posteriorly, noting adventitious sounds.


Brief, not continuous; more common in inspiration; interrupted crackling or bubbling sounds sounds, hairs being rolled between fingers:. Fine, Medium, Coarse.

Sonorous Wheezes/Rhonchi

Deep, running sound that may be continuous; loud, low, coarse sound heard at any point of inspiration or expiration.

Sibilant Wheezes/Wheezes

High-pitched, musical, whistle-like sound during inspiration or expiration; sound may consist of several notes or one; may vary from one minute to the next.

Pleural Friction Rub

Dry, creaking, grating, low-pitched sound with a machine-like quality during both in- and expiration; Loudest over anterior chest.

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