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Grape-like structures or sacs where Gas Exchange takes place. End structure of the bronchial. Surrounded by a blood capillary. Thin walled.
Reduces the surface tension of the alveolus and prevents it from collapsing after each breath.
Stress and Anxiety
When dealing with patients with respiratory impairment or acute/chronic respiratory or cardiac conditions the nurse should also consider physical and emotional responses correlated; Inquire the patient about:
Signs and Symptoms of Hypoxia
Apprehension, anxiety, restlessness; decreased ability to concentrate; disorientation; increased fatigue; vertigo; increased rate and depth of respirations and then slow and shallow:.
Assessment: Objective Data
Assessment of the respiratory system begins anteriorly and posteriorly, noting adventitious sounds.
Brief, not continuous; more common in inspiration; interrupted crackling or bubbling sounds sounds, hairs being rolled between fingers:. Fine, Medium, Coarse.
Deep, running sound that may be continuous; loud, low, coarse sound heard at any point of inspiration or expiration.
High-pitched, musical, whistle-like sound during inspiration or expiration; sound may consist of several notes or one; may vary from one minute to the next.
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