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marieb, the heart


largest artery in the body;arises from the left ventricle of the heart


the two superior receiving chambers of the heart

atrioventricular (AV) node

specialized mass of conducting cells located at the atrioventricular junction in the heart

atrioventricular (AV) bundle

bundle of specialized fibers that conduct impulses from the AV node to the right and left ventricles; also called bund of his

atrioventricular (AV) valves

valve that prevents backflow into the atrium when the connected ventricle is contracting

bicuspid valve

the left AV valve; 2 flaps


a sensory nerve ending in the wall of the carotid sinus or aortic arch sensitive to vessel stretching

cardiac output

amount of blood pumped out of a ventricle in one minute

chordae tendineae

tiny white collagen cords attached to AV valves; "heart strings" which anchor the cups to the papillary muscles protruding from the ventricular walls

left coronary artery

runs toward the left side of the heart and then divides into its major branches ;Anterior intraventricular artery & circumflex artery

right coronary artery

courses to the right side of the heart ; branches to Right marginal artery & Posterior interventricular artery

tricupsid valve

3 flaps; the right AV valve


relaxation period

cardiac cycle

includes all events associated with the blood flow through the heart during one complete heart beat- atrial systole and diastole followed by ventricular systole and diastole

end-diastolic volume (EDV)

the amount of blood that collects in a ventricle during diastole


glistening white sheet of endothelium (squamous epithelium) resting on a thin connective tissue layer; lines the heart chambers & covers the fibrous skeleton of the valves


most visceral layer of the heart and also an interal part of the heart wall

fibrous pericardium

double-walled sac that surrounds the heart; the outermost layer; resposible for protection, anchors surrounding structures, prevents over-filling

foramen ovale

"oval door" connects the two atria and allows blood entering the right heart to bypass the pulmonary circuit and the collapsed, nonfunctional fetal lungs


forces the pump (the heart) has to develop to circulate blood through the cardiovascular system; movement of blood


high blood pressure

inferior vena cava

returns blood to the right atria from the body areas below the diaphragm


middle layer of the heart wall, composed mainly of cardiac muscle and forms bulk of the heart, contractile layer of the heart

mitral valve

bicuspid valve; has 2 valves;left av valve

P wave

first small wave; atrial depolarization


SA node; sets the pace for the heart


double walled sac that encloses the heart

pericardial cavity

slitlike cavity between the parietal and visceral layers, which contains a film or serous fluid, creates a friction free environment as the heart beats

Poiseuille's law

a law of physiology stating that blood flow through a vessel is directly proportional to the radius of the vessel to the fourth power.

pulmonary circulation

blood vessels that carry blood to and from the lungs which serves as gas exchange

Pukinje fibers

long strands of barrel shaped cells with few myofibrils, complete pathway through the interventricular septum

QRS complex

ventricular depolarization

semilunar SL valves

aortic and pulmonary; guard the bases of the large arteries issuing from the ventricles and prevent backflow into the associated ventricles

serous pericardium

deep to the fibrous pericardium; a thin, slippery, two-layer serous membrane

sinoatrial SA node

generates impulses 75 times a minute; sets the pace for the heart and contains the pacemaker

superior vena cava

returns blood to the right atrium from body regions superior to the diaphragm

systemic circulation

blood vessels that carry the functional blood supply to and from all body tissues.



end diastolic volume (EDV)

the amount of blood that collects in a ventricle during diastole

end systole volume (ESV)

the volume of blood remaining in a ventricle after it has contracted

stroke volume

is the volume of the blood pumped out by one ventricle with each beat, about 70mL/beat

T wave

ventricular repolarization

tricuspid valve

the right AV valve has 3 flexible cusps (flaps of endocardium reinforced by connective tissue cones)

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