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23 terms

Hormone Function (main hormones)

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Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
causes thyroid gland cells to secrete T3 and T4; stimulates thyroid growth
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
WOMEN: initiates growth of ovarian follicles each month and stimulates ovulation; MEN: stimulates sperm production
Luteinizing hormone
WOMEN: regulates estrogen secretion and ovum development; MEN: testosterone production
Growth Hormone
affects size of an individual by promoting cell division, protein synthesis, and bone growth
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol
Antidiuretic Hormone
promotes water retention, in high concentrations is also a vasoconstrictor. both of these effects raise the blood pressure
Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone
signals the pituitary gland to release TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone
this hormone stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete FSH and LH
Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone
signals the release of growth hormone by the anterior pituitary
Corticotropin Releasing Hormone
signals the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary
Melatonin
targets the brain to control circadian rhythms and circannual rhythms, and may be involved in maturation of sex organs
Thyroxine
hormone produced by the thyroid glands to regulate metabolism by controlling the rate of oxidation in cells
Calcitonin
Produced by the thyroid gland and decreases the blood calcium levels by stimulating calcium deposit in the bones (calcitonin keeps the bone in). The antagonist of the parathyroid hormone.
Parathyroid Hormone
Increases blood levels of calcium (stimulates breakdown of bone and rate at which calcium is removed from urine and absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract)
Insulin
Hormone produced by the pancreas that is released when stimulated by elevated glucose levels. This hormone decreases blood sugar levels by accelerating the transport of glucose into the body cells where it is oxidized for energy or converted to glycogen or fat for storage.
Glucagon
The antagonist of insulin. Its release is stimulated by low blood glucose levels. It stimulates the liver, its primary target organ, to break down its glycogen stores to glucose and subsequently to release glucose to the blood.
Epinephrine
adrenaline; activates a sympathetic nervous system by making the heart beat faster, stopping digestion, enlarging pupils, sending sugar into the bloodstream, preparing a blood clot faster
Norepinephrine
noradrenaline; chemical which is excitatory, similar to adrenaline, and affects arousal and memory; raises blood pressure by causing blood vessels to become constricted
Aldosterone
salt-retaining hormone which promotes the retention of Na+ by the kidneys. Na+ retention promotes water retention, which promotes a higher blood volume and pressure
Cortisol
secreted from the adrenal cortex, aids the body during stress by increasing glucose levels and suppressing immune system function
Estradiol
The chief estrogen, females produce more than males, develops and maintains female secondary sex characteristics, important roles in menstruation and pregnancy
Progesterone
One of the hormones produced by the ovaries. It works with estrogen to control the menstrual cycle. Also secreted to prepare and sustain the endometrium of the uterus for pregnancy
Testosterone
The male sex hormone produced by the testes which promotes the maturation of the reproductive system, development of the male secondary sex characteristics, and is responsible for sexual drive (libido)