apush unit 13
Terms in this set (51)
John L. Lewis
Head of the United Mine Workers. In 1935, he created the Committee of Industrial Organization (CIO). He and his organization were sympathetic toward unskilled laborers and minorities, creating friction with the older and more powerful American Federation of Labor.
An economic theory based on the thoughts of the British economist John Maynard Keynes, holding that central banks should adjust interest rates and governments should use deficit spending and tax policies to increase purchasing power and hence prosperity.
National Labor Relations Act (1935)
Also known as the Wagner Act, this law protected the right of labor to organize in unions and bargain collectively with employers and established the National Labor Relations Board to monitor unfair labor practices on the part of the employer. Its passage marked the culmination of decades of labor protest.
National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) (1933)
Act passed during the first 100 days that attempted to change the business cycle and set industrial standards and codes. Inspired by the War Industries Board, this organization tried too a lot in a very short amount of time and was thrown together rather haphazardly. As a result, it did not truly fulfill its goals.
Louisianian senator who was a strong critic of the New Deal on account of its not being radical enough. He wanted to create a system of sharing wealth where every man would be a "king." A demagogue, he planned on running against Roosevelt in the 1936 election, but he was assassinated.
Indian Reorganization Act (1934)
Bill proposed by John Collier that was inspired by his sojourn in Taos, New Mexico. It encouraged tribes to establish local self-government and to preserve their native crafts and traditions. It also helped stop the loss of Indian lands and revived tribes' interest in their identity and culture. Some tribes denounced it as going "back to the blanket," but the majority of tribes did set up tribal governments under it.
Lend-Lease Act (1941)
Based on the motto, "Send guns, not sons," this law abandoned former pretenses of neutrality by allowing Americans to sell unlimited supplies of arms to any nation defending itself against the Axis powers. Patriotically numbered 1776, the bill was praised as a device for keeping the nation out of World War II.
Roosevelt's response to the conservative Supreme Court's hostility toward New Deal reform. He proposed the Judicial Reform Procedure Bill (1937), which would add one justice for every justice over 70. This plan was almost universally panned, and it was one of the largest political failures of Roosevelt's presidency.
Works Progress Administration (WPA) (1935)
Created in response to the unrest stirred by demagogues opposed to the New Deal, this organization's goal was to employ civilians on useful projects. This spent about $11 billion on public buildings, bridges and roads. One of its most popular projects was the Federal Art Project, which hired artists to create posters and murals. In the end, it employed about 9 million people.
Neutrality Acts (of 1935, 1936, 1937 and 1939)
The first three of these were short-sighted acts that aimed to prevent American participation in a European war. Among other provisions, they prevented Americans from selling munitions to foreign belligerents. The last one allowed European democracies to buy American munitions, but that they would have to pay in cash for them and transport them in their own ships. It represented an effort to avoid war debts and protect American arms-carriers from torpedo attacks.
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) (1933)
A New Deal program designed to raise agricultural prices by paying farmers not to farm. It was based on the assumption that higher prices would increase farmers' purchasing power and thereby help alleviate the Great Depression.
America First Committee
Group that opposed American involvement in World War II. They were a key figure in foreign policy debate, especially in 1940, after the passage of the Destroyer-Bases Deal.
"Hundred Days" (1933)
The first hundred days of Franklin D. Roosevelt's administration, stretching from March 9 to June 16, 1933, when an unprecedented number of reform bills were passed by a Democratic Congress to launch the New Deal.
The economic and political policies of Franklin D. Roosevelt's administration in the 1930s, which aimed to solve the problems of the Great Depression by providing relief for the unemployed and launching efforts to stimulate economic recovery. It built on reforms of the progressive era to expand greatly an American-style welfare state.
Social Security Act (1935)
A flagship accomplishment of the New Deal, this law provided for unemployment and old-age insurance financed by a payroll tax on employers and employees. Its primary beneficiaries are the elderly, survivors and the disabled (OASDI). It has long remained a pillar of the "New Deal Order."
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) (1933)
One of the most revolutionary of the New Deal public works projects, this brought cheap electric power, full employment, low-cost housing and environmental improvements to Americans in the Tennessee Valley.
National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) (1935)
Created by the Wagner Act, this was an administrative organization that reasserted the right of labor to engage in self-organization and to bargain collectively through representatives of its own choice. Its existence encouraged unskilled laborers to organize--as opposed to the past trend where labor organizations were almost completely filled with skilled laborers.
Critic of the New Deal from the left who recommended a system of old-age pensions. This suggestion portended the Social Security Act.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) (1933)
A corporation that still exists today, which, at its inception, insured everyone's deposits up to $5,000. Its purpose was and is to prevent bank runs, which were highly prevalent during the nascent days of the Great Depression.
Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) (1938)
Important New Deal labor legislation that regulated minimum wages and maximum hours for workers involved in interstate commerce. The law also outlawed labor by children under 16. The exclusion of agricultural, service and domestic workers meant that many blacks, Mexican Americans and women--who were concentrated in these sectors--did not benefit from the act's protection.
Congress of Industrial Organization (CIO)
A New Deal-era labor organization that broke away from the American Federation of Labor (AFL) in order to organize unskilled industrial workers regardless of their particular economic sector or craft. The CIO gave a great boost to labor organizing in the midst of the Great Depression and during World War II. In 1955, the CIO merged with the AFL.
"Share the Wealth"
Senator Huey Long's plan to distribute wealth to all Americans. His plan was for all Americans who made more than $1 million a year to have all but $1 million of that money redistributed to poorer Americans. The end goal was for every American to have a home, car, basic necessities and a $25 thousand per year salary.
Schechter Poultry v. U.S. (1935)
A unanimous decision by the Supreme Court that struck down the NIRA and ruled the NRA unconstitutional. The case arose a Brooklyn poultry company was accused of selling diseased chickens, which was forbidden by the NIRA's poultry standards. The court ruled that Congress had delegated too much power to the executive branch and that live poultry was a part of intrastate commerce.
During World War II Hitler removed his forces from Poland to focus his efforts on France and Britain. All of Europe fell rather silent at the shock of Hitler's move. This silence and period of inactivity in Europe came to an end when Hitler again moved his forces, and attacked the weaker Norway and Denmark.
Contemptuous slang for unemployment benefit payments received by 2 million unemployed in Britain (by 1921). Britain was losing its primacy even before WWI but especially after it. There was increasing competition from newly industrialized nations, growth of tariff barriers, indigenous industries in the colonies, new textiles competing with Britain and new fuels besides coal. Losses were accelerated by WWI disruptions. Thus, Britain's economy was declining even in the early 1920s when others were starting to revive. Britain therefore made use of this welfare system to cope with unemployment. This was copied by the Americans during the Great Depression through welfare programs to help the poor.
Specialists in law, economics and welfare, many young university professors, who advised President Franklin D. Roosevelt and helped developed the policies of the New Deal.
Bases-Destroyer Deal (1940)
U.S. policy of war involvement (not in the form of putting troops on the ground) wherein Roosevelt transferred 50 U.S. destroyers to the United Kingdom in exchange for eight military bases in Newfoundland and the Caribbean.
Form of striking in which workers would go to their place of employment but not partake in any work. This was effective insofar as it would force employers to either acquiesce to demands or fire all the strikers, which would be a bad PR move. Examples during the Great Depression included one at the General Motors Company in Flint, Michigan.
Wagner Act (1935)
Also known as the National Labor Relations Act, this law protected the right of labor to organize in unions and bargain collectively with employers and established the National Labor Relations Board to monitor unfair labor practices on the part of the employer. Its passage marked the culmination of decades of labor protest.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) (1934)
Organization created to oversee the stock exchange. Its main objectives were to prevent fraud, insider trading and market manipulation. It made the stock market into a "market," as opposed to its old reputation as being a de facto casino.
National Recovery Administration (NRA) (1933)
Known by its critics as the "National Run Around," it was an early New Deal program designed to assist industry, labor and the unemployed through centralized planning mechanisms and monitored workers' earnings and working hours to distribute work and established codes for "fair competition" to ensure that similar procedures were allowed by all firms in any particular industrial sector.
First order of business for Roosevelt during the Hundred Days. Banks, which were hit particularly hard by the Depression, were given time off, and myriad reforms were implemented. Such reforms included ending the gold standard, insuring banks, the Glass-Steagall Act, the Emergency Banking Act and the creation of the FDIC.
The policy followed by leaders of Britain and France at the 1938 conference in Munich. Their purpose was to avoid war, but they allowed Germany to take the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia.
Atlantic Charter (1941)
Meeting on a warship off the coast of Newfoundland in August 1941, Franklin Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill signed this covenant outlining the future path toward disarmament, peace and a permanent system of general security. Its spirit would animate the founding of the United Nations and raise awareness of the human rights of individuals after World War II.
"Cash and carry"
Term associated with the Lend-Lease Act that stipulated that European democracies could acquire munitions from the United States but that they would have to purchase them in cash and ship them with their own ships.
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) (1933)
A government program created by Congress to hire young unemployed men to improve the rural, out-of-doors environment with such work as planting trees, fighting fires, draining swamps and maintaining National Parks. This proved to be an important for the post-World War II environmental movement.
Grim nickname for the Great Plains region devastated by drought and dust storms during the 1930s. The disaster led to the migration into California of thousands of displaced "Okies" and "Arkies."
"Ugly word" that symbolized the appeasement of dictators during the conference that was held in this Bavarian city. It was an unsuccessful attempt to satiate Hitler's imperialistic appetites, but it failed miserably.
Nuremberg Laws (1935)
A series of laws passed by the German government under Hitler in 1935 during the early stages of the genocide and Holocaust against the Jews that defined what a German citizen was and, in doing so, essentially excluded Jewish peoples from that group. They stripped German Jews from their citizenship, thus barring them from certain professions and military service, and prohibiting marriage between Jews and Aryans. These laws were passed in 1935 but were further defined throughout the war and were especially prevalent during the November of 1938 Kristallnacht attacks that took place on Jewish businesses, synagogues and homes.
Public Works Administration (PWA) (1933)
Organization that was intended for both industrial recovery and unemployment relief. Its goal was for civic improvements and the boosting of the economy through employment. It was headed by Harold L. Ickes and completed some spectacular projects, like the Grand Coulee Dam.
Fr. Charles Coughlin
Anti-socialist, -communist and -Wall Street priest whose slogan was "social justice." He garnered a following of about 40 million listeners, but he was eventually silenced as his preaching became more anti-Semitic.
Civil Works Administration (CWA) (1933)
Organization created as a branch of FERA. Harry Hopkins was its head, and its role was to provide purely temporary jobs during the winter emergency. It employed thousands at simple tasks like leaf-raking (and it received some criticism for this).
Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) (1933)
Organization headed by Harry Hopkins that was concerned with immediate relief. It gave loans to state and local governments to boost employment and expand infrastructure. In total, it granted approximately $3 billion to states for direct welfare payments or wages on work projects.
Nye Committee (1934-1936)
Nonpartisan group that studied US entry into World War I with an attention on the role of the banking and munitions industries. Its conclusions were that international bankers pushed the United States into World War I and that the forthcoming war would not present the United States with a big enough moral dilemma or security threat to justify involvement. Its conclusions recommended non-intervention and fueled isolationist sentiment.
Selective Service Act (1917)
This act, which was established in 1917 and was still around from World War I, required all males age 19 or older to register for the military draft. It was resurrected for World War II.
Southern Democrats, many of whom opposed Roosevelt's policies, were members of Congress' most important committees. Roosevelt, wanting to garner support for his New Deal policies, sought to find Southerners more amicable to his politics. However, the plan was unsuccessful and disgruntled Southern Democrats were, in response, unwilling to help push forward his legislation. The failure of this plan was a chief reason for New Deal legislation's lack of success.
U.S. v. Butler (1936)
Supreme Court decision that struck down the Agricultural Adjustment Act. It ruled that the processing tax, and, ergo, the AAA, was unconstitutional.
Glass-Steagall Act (1933)
A law creating the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, which insured individual bank deposits and ended a century-long tradition of unstable banking that had reached a crisis in the Great Depression.
Farm Credit Admin/Home Owners Loan Corp
2 administrations passed during 100 days; helped homeowners refinance and mortgage their homes. They were typically given second loans to pay off their first loans. The difference between them was that the FCA was urban and the HOLC was rural.
Public Utilities Holding Company Act
A law that limited how many public utility companies a holding company can own, and unless they are given specific permission from the US gov they can typically only own 1.
US had $4 billion in spending in the economy. In order to slow inflation they took $3 billion out of circulation and they expected the lack of private money to be picked up by private spending. That didn't happen and the recession Roosevelt caused was worse than the stock market crash. Fixed by: 1. more deficit spending 2. second AAA 3. Fair Labor Standards Act 4. the purge