AQA A Level Psychology Psychopathology

Terms in this set (23)

:) - The two way process model explains well why phobias are maintained over time and also has very important implication for therapy as it explains why exposure to the feared stimulus is vital. If patients are prevented from avoidance behaviour then the behaviour will stop being reinforced and so declines.
:) - The behavioural approach has extremely effective practical applications such as systematic desensitisation that help treat phobias. This means that it can be used by doctors in the medical profession help relieve symptoms.
:( - Nature vs Nurture - The behaviouralist approach completely overlooks any effects of nature and simply 100% relies on nurture. Bounton said that we easily acquire a fear of snakes and of the dark etc as this is an adaptive evolutionary skill for survival. These were called preparedness which are innate predispositions to certain fears. This is a serious limitation as it shows there is more than just conditioning in learning.
:( - The approach is highly reductionist and tries to simplify complex human behaviours like phobias into a stimulus response relationship. It neglects holistic ideas such as thoughts and genes. It also cant explain for situations where people develop a phobia but have never been in contact with the stimulus before.
:( - The two way process model states that the neutral stimulus associates with the unconditioned stimulus, however not everyone who is for example bitten by a dog will have a phobia of dogs. This can be explained via the stress diatheses model that states we have a genetic vulnerability but we still need an environmental trigger to elicit behaviours, this shows us that the two way process model is too simplistic on its own as there are individual differences.