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APWH Period 6 - 1900 to the Present
Terms in this set (105)
(v.) to resign, formally give up an office or a duty; to disown, discard
An alliance between Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, China, and the United States in World War II
Great Britain, France, and Russia, later joined by the US
military weapons and equipment
Energy released from a nuclear reaction, including emission of radioactivity, fission, and fusion
An economic system based on private property and free enterprise.
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
Creation of large, state-run farms rather than individual holdings; allowed more efficient control over peasants; part of Stalin's economic and political planning; often adopted in other Communist regimes.
A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
A political viewpoint disposed to preserve existing conditions, institutions, etc., or to restore traditional ones.
A U.S. foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances
The collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence.
to remove from office or position, esp. high office: The people _______ the dictator.
A process of transition as a country attempts to move from an authoritarian form of government to a democratic one.
a belief, principle, or teaching; a system of such beliefs or principles; a formulation of such beliefs or principles
Favoring social equality; believing in a society in which all people have equal political, economic, and civil rights
Effort to eradicate a people and its culture by means of mass killing and the destruction of historical buildings and cultural materials. It was used, for example, by both sides in the conflicts that accompanied the disintegration of Yugoslavia.
(n.) a mass departure; a general noun derived from a reference to the biblical exodus from Egypt.
A governmental system led by a dictator having complete power, forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism, regimenting all industry, commerce, etc., and emphasizing an aggressive nationalism and often racism.
the largely democratic and free-market states of the United States and Western Europe (Cold War to today)
the line along which opposing armies face each other (WWI)
The idea that the world is becoming increasingly interconnected on a global scale such that smaller scales of political and economic life are becoming obsolete.
a gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth's atmosphere generally attributed to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and other pollutants.
a member of a loosely organized fighting force that makes surprise attacks on enemy troops occupying his/her country
euphemism for interference by a country in another's affairs; often used as an alternative label for a military incursion
the policy of avoiding political or military involvment with other countries
A holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral, spiritual, or political goal
A group of people who have the power to make laws
(adj, n) favorable to progress or reform; believing in maximum possible individual freedom; tolerant, open-minded; generous (adj); a person with such beliefs or practices (noun)
A political orientation of a people or a government to maintain a strong military force and to be prepared to use it aggresively to defend or promote national interests
A sense of unity binding the people of a state together; devotion to the interests of a particular country or nation, an identification with the state and an acceptance of national goals.
To bring under the ownership or control of a nation, such as industries and land.
A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality
Materials or substances such as minerals, forests, water, and fertile land that occur in nature and can be used for economic gain
National Socialist Party (Nazi)
formed in Munich after World War I. It advocated right-wing authoritarian nationalist government and developed a racist ideology based on anti-Semitism and a belief in the superiority of "Aryan" Germans. Its charismatic leader, Adolf Hitler, who was elected Chancellor in 1933, established a totalitarian dictatorship, rearmed Germany in support of expansionist foreign policies in central Europe, and thus precipitated World War II.
A slowdown in economic activity over a period of time. During one of these periods all of the following things decline: Gross Domestic Product (GDP), employment, investment spending, capacity utilization, household incomes, business profits and inflation. Meanwhile bankruptcies and the unemployment rate rise.
adj. favoring fundamental or extreme change; relating to roots or origins
As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.
An overthrow and replacement of an established government or political system by the people governed.
competition for the same objective or for superiority in the same field.
Concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters
Devoted to a particular religious sect, particularly when referring to religious involvement in politics; "Today we saw the outbreak of __________ violence..."
Acts of violence designed to promote a specific ideology or agenda by creating panic among an enemy population
Also known as developing nations; nations outside the capitalist industrial nations of the first world and the industrialized communist nations of the second world; generally less economically powerful, but with varied economies.
A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
An adoption of the social, political, or economic institutions of Western—especially European or American—countries.
A South African policy of complete legal separation of the races, including the banning of all social contacts between blacks and whites. Ended in 1994.
Collective name for South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore-nations that became economic powers in the 1970s and 1980s.
It was built in 1956 to control the flooding of the Nile River; created Lake Nasser. The dam gives Egyptian farmers a more dependable source of water for their crops. It also gives Egypt electrical power.
Kemal Mustafa Ataturk
founder of the Republic of Turkey; creates a secular/modernizing Turkish nation, (language reform, bans veil, removal of religion from public life, military as the safeguard of the republic.
Shi'ite philosopher and cleric who led the overthrow of the shah of Iran in 1979 and created an Islamic Republic of Iran.
Statement issued by Britain's Foreign Secretary in 1917 favoring the establishment of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine.
Joint effort by the US and Britian to fly food and supplies into W Berlin after the Soviet blocked off all ground routes into the city.
A political party that wanted Russia to lead an immediate worldwide revolution; it gained control of Russia by getting elected to the soviets by promising to leave World War I.
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
Chiang Kai Shek
general and leader of Nationalist China after 1925. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang, he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong.
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
Cuban Missile Crisis
1962 crisis that arose between the United States and the Soviet Union over a Soviet attempt to deploy nuclear missiles in Cuba.
(1966-1976) Political policy in started in China by Mao Zedong to eliminate his rivals and train a new generation in the revolutionary spirit that created communist China. The Cultural Revolution resulted in beatings, terror, mass jailings, and the deaths of thousands.
leader after Mao Zadong; led a group of practical minded reformers, ended cultural revolution; led China to modernize, be open to outside investment; shift towards family traditions, clothing changed, names not patriotic
Nations favorable to the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe during the cold war-particularly Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Rumania, Hungary, and East Germany
European Economic Community
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
an association of European nations formed in 1993 for the purpose of achieving political and economic integration.
A peace program presented to the U.S. Congress by President Woodrow Wilson in January 1918. It called for the evacuation of German-occupied lands, the drawing of borders and the settling of territorial disputes by the self-determination of the affected populations, and the founding of an association of nations to preserve the peace and guarantee their territorial integrity. It was rejected by Germany, but it made Wilson the moral leader of the Allies in the last year of World War I.
new leader of the movement, came from a middle-class family, studied law in England, fought against discrimination in S. Africa against indians, leader of the Indian National Congress, urged for equal rights, and used non-violent resistance
African American leader durin the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.
Great Leap Forward
China's second five-year plan under the leadership of the impatient Mao, it aimed to speen up economic development while simultaneously developing a completely socialitst society. This plan failed and more than 20 million people starved between 1958 and 1960.
elected Chancellor of Germany in January 1933, the fascist Nazi leader who oversaw German economic recovery by mobilizing industry for military purposes; he aggressively sought global hegemony & oversaw one of the century's most notorious genocide attempts
Ho Chi Minh
1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.
Was a dictator in Iraq who tried to take over Iran and Kuwait violently in order to gain the land and the resources in 1991. He also refused to let the UN into Iraq in order to check if the country was secretly holding weapons of mass destruction.
International Atomic Energy Agency
A UN agency created in 1946 to limit the use of nuclear technology to peaceful purposes. The purpose of this organization today is to ensure compliance with the Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) to ensure that signatories are not using nuclear technology to develop nuclear weapons. This organization does this through regular on-site inspections of nuclear facilities inside all countries that have joined the NPT.
International Monetary Fund
An international organization of 183 countries, established in 1947 with the goal of promoting cooperation and exchange between nations, and to aid the growth of international trade.
an uprising by Palestinian Arabs (in both the Gaza Strip and the West Bank) against Israel in the late 1980s and again in 2000
the war began when Iraq invaded Iran on September 22, 1980 following a long history of border disputes and fears of Shia insurgency among Iraq's long suppressed Shia majority influenced by Iran's Islamic revolution.
A term popularized by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to describe the Soviet Union's policy of isolation during the Cold War. The barrier isolated Eastern Europe from the rest of the world.
A Jewish state on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean, both in antiquity and again founded in 1948 after centuries of Jewish diaspora.
1950-1953; Conflict that began with North Korea's invasion of South Korea and came to involve the United Nations (primarily the United States) allying with South Korea and the People's Republic of China allying with North Korea.
League of Nations
A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined the League. Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1946.
Founder of the Russian Bolshevik (later Communist) Party, this man led the November Revolution in 1917 which established a revolutionary soviet government based on a union of workers, peasants, and soldiers.
(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.
1948-1952; A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
An economic pact that combined the conomies of the United States, Canada, and Mexico into one of the world's largest trading blocs.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
In 1949, the United States, Canada, and ten European nations formed this military mutual-defense pact. In 1955, the Soviet Union countered with the formation of the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance among those nations within its own sphere of influence.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
An economic organization consisting primarily of Arab nations that controls the price of oil and the amount of oil its members produce and sell to other nations.
Shah Reza Pahlavi
the leader of Iran after World War II that was supported by Western government and Western oil companies. He tried to weaken the political influence of religion in Iran by limiting the role of the Islamic legal and academic experts. He was forced to flee from Iran in January 1979.
A territory in the Middle East on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Disputed with Israel.
Rape of Nanjing
Japanese attack on Chinese capital from 1937-1938 when Japanese aggressorts slaughtered 100,000 civilians and raped thousands of women in order to gain control of China.
Six Days War
a war between Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. The Arab states of Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria also contributed troops and arms. At the war's end, Israel had gained control of the Sinai Peninsula, the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Golan Heights. The results of the war affect the geopolitics of the region to this day.
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communist Party after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928-1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush all opposition.
Sun Yat Sen
Chinese nationalist revolutionary, founder and leader of the Guomindang until his death. He attempted to create a liberal democratic political movement in China but was thwarted by military leaders.
Hitler's plan to have Germany reign for a Thousand Year Empire over Europe - lasted 6 years.
Treaty of Versailles
(1919) Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty significantly reduced the size of Germany's military; had to pay war reparations (33 billion); had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI; could not manufacture any weapons.
Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.
1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
lead by Stalin, communist in nature, union of "soviets" or state
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
A prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States.
War on Terror
Initiated by President George W. Bush after the attacks of September 11, 2001, the broadly defined war on terror aimed to weed out terrorist operatives and their supporters throughout the world.
A military alliance of communist nations in eastern Europe. Organized in 1955 in answer to NATO; included Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union.
(1856-1924) President of the United States (1913-1921) and the leading figure at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. He was unable to persuade the U.S. Congress to ratify the Treaty of Versailles or join the League of Nations.
World Trade Organization (WTO)
An international agency which encourages trade between member nations, administers global trade agreements and resolves disputes when they arise.
World War I
A war between the allies (Russia, France, British Empire, Italy, United States, Japan, Rumania, Serbia, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro) and the central powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria) from 1914 to 1918.
World War II
War fought Between Axis powers (Germany, Italy, Japan) and Allied Powers (U.S., France, U.S.S.R., and U.K.); Single largest war in the history of U.S.; Introduced Age of Nuclear Weapons; New system of international diplomacy developed as a result; 1939 to 1945, but U.S. involved from 1941-1945
Young Turks Party
A Turkish revolutionary nationalist reform party, officially known as the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), whose leaders led a rebellion against the Ottoman sultan and effectively ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1908 until shortly before World War I.
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