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Semester 2 Review
Terms in this set (142)
Washington demonstrated the strength of the federal government when he put an end to farmers' protests
In 1803, Thomas Jefferson doubled the size of the nation and stretched his powers as president when he bought a vast amount of land from Napoleon
Alien and Sedition Acts
These were passed under John Adams's administration to maintain Federalist control and limit the power of immigrants and their political opponents.
War of 1812
Causes: impressment of American sailors, Native Americans resisting white settlement. Effects: Nationalism and manufacturing in the United States.
Created by Alexander Hamilton to regulate a common currency in the United States
Group of electors who vote to officially elect the president of the United States
Tax on imports to encourage consumers to purchase domestic goods
Political party led by Alexander Hamilton that believed in a strong central government, an industrial economy, and a loose interpretation of the Constitution
Political party led by Thomas Jefferson that believed in strong state governments, an agricultural economy, and a strict interpretation of the Constitution
The belief that states have rights that the federal government should not abuse. This in part caused the Nullification Crisis and the Civil War.
Federalist, writer of the Federalist Papers, Washington's Secretary of Treasury who created the National Bank
Democratic-Republican, Washington's Secretary of State, 3rd president, purchased Louisiana
"Star Spangled Banner"
National Anthem based on a poem written at the bombing of Ft. McHenry during the War of 1812
Battle of New Orleans
Last battle of the War of 1812 that made Andrew Jackson a national hero
Treaty of Ghent
No land changed after the War of 1812, but the treaty did make it clear that the United States would remain independent from Great Britain
Washington's Farewell Address
Remain neutral, avoid political parties, avoid foreign alliances
A conflict with the French foreign minister that almost led to war with France, but John Adams avoided war.
Emargo Act; Non-Intercourse Acts
Attempts by Presidents Jefferson and Madison to establish safe trade at sea by avoiding Britain and France. Did not work
"Father of the Constitution" for taking excellent notes at the Convention and writings, president during the War of 1812
Lewis & Clark
Explored the territory Thomas Jefferson purchased from Louisiana in attempts to find a water-route to the Pacific.
The federal courts can determine whether or not a law is constitutional. Established in Marbury v. Madison
Marbury v. Madison
Supreme Court case that established the principle of judicial review when the court declared the Judiciary Act unconstitutional
Supreme Court Chief Justice for 34 years who strengthened the judicial branch and established the supremacy of the national government over the states.
An example for the future
Era of Good Feelings
Period following the War of 1812 defined by strong nationalism
Second Bank of the United States
Declared constitutional by McCulloch v. Maryland, and then killed by Andrew Jackson because he believed it only helped the wealthy and hurt the common man
Political party formed by Andrew Jackson that believed in helping the common man--farmers.
Political party that formed in opposition to Andrew Jackson because they believed he was abusing his power as president.
5th president of the United States during the Era of Good Feelings. His foreign policy established the U.S. as the power in the Western Hemisphere
The right to vote
7th president who supported the common man, removed Indians from the Southeast, used the spoils system, a kitchen cabinet, and killed the bank of the U.S.
Five Civilized Tribes
Name of the group of Indians removed from the Southeast by President Andrew Jackson.
Indian Removal Act
Authorized the president to relocate Native American groups west of the Mississippi River.
Worcester v. Georgia
Supreme Court case that said the Cherokee had a right to stay on their land. This decision was ignored by Andrew Jackson
Trail of Tears
Thousands of Native Americans were forcibly relocated west of the Mississippi River.
Economic policy in which the government has little interference in American businesses, which are free to expand.
Vice-President John C. Calhoun argued that the protective tariffs hurt the South, and they had a right to nullify (or overturn) the federal law. Andrew Jackson prevented South Carolina from seceding by lowering the tariff.
McCulloch v. Maryland
The Second Bank of the United States was declared Constitutional in this supreme court case due to implied powers in the Constitution, and the national government is supreme over the states (who cannot tax the national bank)
Gibbons v. Ogden
Only the federal government has the power to regulate trade between states (interstate trade), so the steamboat monopoly is unfair.
Robert Fulton improved this invention, which allowed for faster and more efficient trade of goods and increased tourism.
Linked the Great Lakes to New York City and opened up the Midwest to more trade.
First national highway built to increase westward settlement and free enterprise in the west.
Allowed for mass production of goods
Laid out a process for the nation's orderly expansion by establishing a method of adding new states to the Union. Democratic principles included trial by jury, freedom of religion, and no slavery.
The belief that Americans were destined by God to expand from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean.
James K. Polk
Manifest Destiny president who acquired Oregon territory and the Mexican Cession
Foreign policy of James Monroe that said European nations should not colonize in the Western Hemisphere any more.
Roots of Manifest Destiny
Spreading democracy, economic opportunity (cheap land), increased trade, rapid population growth in the East, spreading Christianity.
U.S. - Mexican War
Caused by border disputes at the Texas-Mexico border. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo gave the United States a vast amount of land west of Texas, including California (Mexican Cession)
Small tract of land in Arizona purchased to build the railroad. The last piece of the map.
Border between Canada and the United States
Debates about annexing Florida, Texas, and California led to debates about slavery in Congress because some opposed the expansion of slavery in the West.
Someone who comes to a country from another country, often in search of opportunity.
1849--immigrants and easterners move to California in search of economic opportunity. Boomtowns like San Francisco form. Mining becomes a major industry
Moved to escape religious persecution and formed a lasting community by adapting to the land in the Great Salk Lake area.
Came to the United States after the Gold Rush, worked in mines and on the Transcontinental Railroad.
Removed seeds from cotton at a faster pace, which led to more cotton plantations and increased need for slave labor to pick the cotton.
Morse Code allowed for instant communication along great distances, which promoted growth of businesses
The process by which goods were made in factories. Factories in cities led to the growth of cities, were there were more job opportunities
Completed in 1869, this linked the east and west, making travel of people and goods much faster.
Steel Plow and Mechanical Reaper
Farming innovations that reduced the labor required for farming
Second Great Awakening
Religious revival in which people tried to find religious answers to problems in society. This sparked other reform movements in the mid-1800s.
Loyalty to the economy and beliefs of the section of the nation in which you live, rather than the nation as a whole. Led to the Civil War.
Came to the United States to escape the Potato Famine. Worked on transportation systems like the Erie Canal and the railroads.
Came for economic opportunity and specialized in specific crafts.
Someone who is anti-immigrant and believes those born in the United States should be prioritized over immigrants.
Lowell Mill Girls
Women who worked in the textile mills and petitioned for shorter workdays. They were unsuccessful.
Poor working conditions led to the organization of trade unions, strikes, and those who protested child labor.
A reform movement devoted to reducing the consumption of alcohol.
Leader of the educational reform movement
Leader of the prison reform movement
The idea that individualism and self-reliance are important to one's happiness. Truth can be found in nature. Leaders included Emerson and Thoreau
Henry David Thoreau
Transcendentalist who practiced civil disobedience by refusing to pay taxes during the U.S.-Mexican War because he was opposed to the expansion of slavery.
Hudson River School
Group of landscape painters who glorified the unique and vast American landscape
John James Audubon
Documented a unique American wildlife by painting different species of birds.
The movement that focused on abolishing slavery in the United States.
William Lloyd Garrison
Started the first anti-slavery newspaper called The Liberator
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Abolitionist who wrote popular novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, which drew many to the abolitionist cause
Abolitionist and founder of the North Star (anti-slavery paper), helped with the Underground Railroad, spoke with Lincoln about emancipating slaves during the Civil War
Leading conductor on the Underground Railroad and spy for the Union during the Civil War
Seneca Falls Convention
First meeting to discuss women's rights, started by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton in New York.
Declaration of Sentiments
Used language from the Declaration of Independence to support equality for women.
Susan B. Anthony
Strong supporter of women's suffrage
1861-1865; caused by sectionalism, slavery, and states rights
Used popular sovereignty to determine whether or not slavery would exist in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska
Violence erupted between pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups that went to Kansas to vote on the issue of slavery.
The Great Compromiser who wrote the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850; Speaker of House and Secretary of State
For the Louisiana Purchase territory: slavery above the 36'30 line will be free, states below will be slave. Maine added as a free state and Missouri added as a slave state to maintain a balance of power in Senate.
After Andrew Jackson did not win a majority in the election of 1824, Henry Clay persuaded the House of Representatives to vote for John Quincy Adams (who made Clay Secretary of State)
Compromise of 1850
For territory acquired from Mexican Cession: California would enter as a free state, the rest of the land would be determined by popular sovereignty. Fugitive Slave Act passed.
Fugitive Slave Act
Passed under the Compromise of 1850, this act forced runaway slaves to be returned the South, and punished those who did not help.
Violent abolitionist who led a raided a federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry in attempts to start a slave revolt. He was hanged for treason.
Formed in opposition to the expansion of slavery into new territories in the United States.
Democrat elected president in 1856 who let South Carolina secede.
Election of 1860
Abraham Lincoln's election sparked South Carolina's decision to secede from the United States.
Alliance of Southern states who seceded from the U.S.
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Supreme Court case that overturned the Missouri Compromise by saying slaves are property that are protected under the 5th amendment. A triumph for slavery.
President of the Confederate States of America
Ulysses S. Grant
General for the Union who accepted the surrender from the Confederacy.
Robert E. Lee
Confederate general whose surrender of the Virginia forces ended the Civil War.
Confederate general known for his ability to stand firm in battle (First Battle of Bull Run)
16th president of the United States, Republican who preserved the Union, emancipated slaves, and has a lasting legacy as a great president.
William Carney and Philip Bazaar
First minorities to win Congressional Medals of Honor.
All-black regiment known for their bravery during the assault on Ft. Sumter during the Civil War.
Winfield Scott's Anaconda Plan
1. Establish a naval blockade. 2. Capture the Mississippi River. 3. Capture Richmond.
First battle of the Civil War
First Battle of Bull Run
Made it clear the Civil War would not be a short, easy war.
Battle of Antietam
Bloodiest single day of fighting. Caused Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point of the Civil War--Lee would never have the strength he needed to invade the Union.
Battle of Vicksburg
The Union captured the Mississippi River and divided Confederate forces.
Sherman's March to the Sea
Total war was used to break the will of the South to fight. Atlanta was burned and the South's infrastructure was torn apart.
The Petersburg Campaign
Led to the fall of Richmond and Lee's surrender
Slaves in rebelling states (Confederate States) are free. Gave the Union the moral high ground in the war and encouraged African Americans to enlist.
Appomattox Court House
The location of Lee's surrender to Grant.
Assassination of Lincoln
John Wilkes Booth killed the 16th president at Ford's Theater days after Lee surrendered.
Lincoln's First Inaugural Address
The Union must be preserved. We will not attack, but if the South attacks, we will respond with force.
Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address
It is time for the nation to heal its wounds and come back together as one.
A two-minute speech that defined the meaning of the Civil War and honored those who died fighting for a noble cause.
Davis's Inaugural Address
The South has the right to secede because the Declaration of Independence says if a government does not protect our rights, we have a right to abolish that government.
Forced enlistment for military service. Led to Draft Riots in New York City.
The right of a prisoner to demand justification for his imprisonment.
"Battle Hymn of the Republic"
Written during the Civil War to say God was on the side of those fighting for human liberty and the Union cause.
Period following the Civil War that attempted to bring Confederate States back into the Union. Ended with the removal of federal troops from the South in 1877.
Those who believed the rights of freedmen needed to be protected. Their leader was Thaddeus Stevens
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Granted African Americans citizenship in response to black codes in the South. First law to protect racial minorities.
Organization created to help freedmen by providing clothing, shelter, medicine, and education.
Radical Republican Reconstruction divided the South into military districts until they met Congress's demands.
Hiram Rhodes Revels
The first African-American senator
A farming practice that kept many poor Southerners in debt. Farmers would rent land and tools, and in exchange, provide the land-owner with a share of their harvest
Marked by political scandal, corruption, and an economic depression, this brought an end to Republican rule and Redeemer Democrats came to power in Congress.
President at the beginning of Reconstruction, he was impeached for firing his Secretary of War and multiple vetoes of Radical Republican legislation
Literacy test, poll taxes, and grandfather clauses were used to keep freedmen from voting in the South
Ku Klux Klan
White supremacist group that used violence and intimidation to restore Democratic control in the South and limit the rights of freedmen
Jim Crow Laws
Legalized segregation in public facilities
160 acres of free land in the Great Plains for those who paid a small filing fee. Half a million Americans set up farms under the act.
States would use land given to them by the government to create colleges that taught mechanics and agriculture. It made higher education more available to Americans
Broke up reservations into individual farms for Native Americans in order to break up their tribal system and promote assimilation into American society.
Pacific Railway Act
Began construction of telegraph lines and the Transcontinental Railroad to promote settlement of the West
Granted citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the U.S. and protects them equally under the law.
No one can be denied the right to vote based on race
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