Fingers, Hand and Wrist Anatomy & Positioning
Hand and Wrist, Forearm, Humerus, Shoulder Girdle
4 main groups of the upper limb
Hand and wrist consist of ______ ______
Phalanges, Metacarpals, Carpals
3 subdivided groups of the hand and wrist
Consists of 14 bones
Consists of 5 bones
Consists of 8 bones
What each finger and thumb are called:
Each digit consists of two or three separate bones called:
type of bone of the phalanx
2 thru 5 digit
Has 3 phalanx in these digits
Only has 2 phalanx in this digit
Proximal and Distal Phalanx
Name of the two bones in the thumb
Proximal, Middle, and Distal Phalanx
Name of the three bones in digits 2 - 5.
the phalanges that do not have two articular ends.
Head, body/shaft, base
Each phalanx consists of these three parts:
distal phalanx, the head or tip of phalanx
Make up the palm of the hand
Head, body/shaft, base
Each metacarpal consists of these three parts:
Have 3 criteria: Joints are differentiated as either proximal or distal, By the digit number, Named as either left or right
Joint between the phalanges of the thumb
Distal Interphalangeal joint
Most distal joint of the digits
Distal interphalangeal, Proximal interphalangeal, Metacarpophalangeal joint
Three joints of digits 2-5
The joint between the first metacarpal and proximal phalanx of the thumb
At the proximal end of the metacarpals they articulate with the carpals to form the:
The wrist have this many carpal bones
Row of bones nearest the forearm, beginning on the lateral side of the thumb
Scaphoid (Navicular), Lunate (Semilunar), Triquetrum (Triangular), Pisiform
Bones located on the proximal row
Articulates with the radius proximally. Most frequently fractured carpal bone.
Moon-shaped (cresent shaped). Articulates with the radius.
Has three articular surfaces and articulates anteriorly with the pisiform.
Smallest of the carpal bones.
Row that articulates with the five metacarpal bones.
Trapezium (Greater Multangular), Trapezoid (Lesser Multangular), Capitate (Os Magnum), Hamate (Unciform)
Bones of the distal row
Trapezium (Greater Multangular)
Irregular shaped, four sided. Articulates with the base of the first metacarpal
Trapezoid (Lesser Multangular)
Four sided, wedge-shaped. Smallest bone on the distal row
Capitate (Os Magnum)
Largest of the carpal bones. Most centrally located. Articulates with the base of the third metacarpal.
Hook-like process called the hamulus or hamular process located on the anterior surface
Carpal Canal or Carpal Tunnel
demonstrates the carpal sulcus
All joints of the upper limb are classified as this:
ginglymus (hinge); allows only flexion and extension
Ellipsoid (condyloid); allows flexion and extension, abduction and adduction, circumduction
First carpometacarpal joint
Sellar (saddle); Allows flexion and extension, abduction and adduction, circumduction and opposition
2-5 carpometacarpal joints
these joints are also plane (gliding)
Wrist joint (Radiocarpal joint)
Ellipsoid (condyloid); Made up of the articulation between the radius, scaphoid, and lunate.
Part of the wrist joint although it does not articulate with the radius.
Hand pronated and moved toward the pinky side of the forearm. Opens up carpal joints on the lateral side of wrist.
Carpal best demonstrated: scaphoid, trapezium, trapezoid
Hand pronated and moved toward the thumb side. Opens up carpal joint on medial/little finger side.
Carpals best demonstrated: lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, hamate
Fat pads, fat stripes, or fat bands
Important to see radiographically. displacement or absence of may be an indication of a fracture or disease within a joint.
located outside the synovial sac but within the joint capsule.
number of fat pads in the wrist joint
Scaphoid and Pronator fat stripe
2 fat pads in the wrist joint
Scaphoid fat stripe
lateral to the scaphoid on PA and oblique views
Pronator fat stripe
seen 1 cm from the anterior surface of the radius
where to place markers on IR
Part parallel to IR, CR perpendicular to part and IR, Correct CR centering
3 things to remember when centering for the hand
displacement of a bone from a joint. Most of upper extremity involve the shoulder, fingers, and thumb.
Forced wrenching or twisting of a joint resulting in a partial rupture or tearing of supporting ligaments
Break in the bone; a break in the structure of the bone caused by a force.
does not break through the skin
breaks through the skin
broken into three or more pieces
fragments driven into one another
break is complete and includes cross section of bone. Broken into two pieces
fracture is on one side only. One side is broken and the other side is bent.
carpal tunnel syndrome
painful disorder of the wrist and hand that results from the compression of the median nerve as it passes through the center of the wrist
intra-articular fracture and dislocation of the posterior lip of the distal radius
longitudinal fracture of the base of the first metacarpal. If untreated can lead to reduction or loss of range of movement of thumb.
fracture of the distal fifth metacarpal
common fracture of the distal radius with the distal fragment displaced posteriorly
Reverse Colles'- fracture of distal radius with anterior displacement of the distal fragment
Degenerative Joint Disease (DJD); Non-inflammatory joint disease characterized by deterioration of the articular cartilage with bone formation at the joint margins.
Infection of bone or bone marrow that may be caused by bacteria introduced by trauma or surgery
Marble Bone Disease; Hereditary disease which has abnormally dense bone. Common for fractures to occur in effected bone.
A reduction in the quantity of bone or atrophy of skeletal tissue.
Chronic disease that has a destructive phase followed by a reparative phase of overproduction of very dense yet soft bones that tend to fracture easily.
Bruise without a fracture
located at the extreme distal ends of both radius and the ulna
hamulus or hamate process
projects from its palmar surface; easily distinguished by the hooklike process
small depression on the medial aspect of the distal radius