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Have 3 criteria: Joints are differentiated as either proximal or distal, By the digit number, Named as either left or right
Distal interphalangeal, Proximal interphalangeal, Metacarpophalangeal joint
Three joints of digits 2-5
At the proximal end of the metacarpals they articulate with the carpals to form the:
Scaphoid (Navicular), Lunate (Semilunar), Triquetrum (Triangular), Pisiform
Bones located on the proximal row
Articulates with the radius proximally. Most frequently fractured carpal bone.
Has three articular surfaces and articulates anteriorly with the pisiform.
Trapezium (Greater Multangular), Trapezoid (Lesser Multangular), Capitate (Os Magnum), Hamate (Unciform)
Bones of the distal row
Trapezium (Greater Multangular)
Irregular shaped, four sided. Articulates with the base of the first metacarpal
Capitate (Os Magnum)
Largest of the carpal bones. Most centrally located. Articulates with the base of the third metacarpal.
Hook-like process called the hamulus or hamular process located on the anterior surface
Ellipsoid (condyloid); allows flexion and extension, abduction and adduction, circumduction
First carpometacarpal joint
Sellar (saddle); Allows flexion and extension, abduction and adduction, circumduction and opposition
Wrist joint (Radiocarpal joint)
Ellipsoid (condyloid); Made up of the articulation between the radius, scaphoid, and lunate.
Hand pronated and moved toward the pinky side of the forearm. Opens up carpal joints on the lateral side of wrist.
Hand pronated and moved toward the thumb side. Opens up carpal joint on medial/little finger side.
Fat pads, fat stripes, or fat bands
Important to see radiographically. displacement or absence of may be an indication of a fracture or disease within a joint.
Part parallel to IR, CR perpendicular to part and IR, Correct CR centering
3 things to remember when centering for the hand
displacement of a bone from a joint. Most of upper extremity involve the shoulder, fingers, and thumb.
Forced wrenching or twisting of a joint resulting in a partial rupture or tearing of supporting ligaments
carpal tunnel syndrome
painful disorder of the wrist and hand that results from the compression of the median nerve as it passes through the center of the wrist
intra-articular fracture and dislocation of the posterior lip of the distal radius
longitudinal fracture of the base of the first metacarpal. If untreated can lead to reduction or loss of range of movement of thumb.
common fracture of the distal radius with the distal fragment displaced posteriorly
Reverse Colles'- fracture of distal radius with anterior displacement of the distal fragment
Degenerative Joint Disease (DJD); Non-inflammatory joint disease characterized by deterioration of the articular cartilage with bone formation at the joint margins.
Infection of bone or bone marrow that may be caused by bacteria introduced by trauma or surgery
Marble Bone Disease; Hereditary disease which has abnormally dense bone. Common for fractures to occur in effected bone.
Chronic disease that has a destructive phase followed by a reparative phase of overproduction of very dense yet soft bones that tend to fracture easily.
hamulus or hamate process
projects from its palmar surface; easily distinguished by the hooklike process
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