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table of contents

Helps the reader identify key topics in a book in the order they are presented.


Alphabetical list of almost everything covered in the text with page numbers and used by readers to help find specific information.


Alphabetical listing of key terms with definitions and used to look up words and find their meaning.

title & headline

Lets the reader know what the writing will be about and make connetions between what they already know and the text. It is helpful for determining a main idea.


Helps to organize the details o the piece in sections and helps readers locate information in the text by telling them where to look.

bold/italics/colored Print

Sends a message to the header about how to read the text and helps the reader by saying, "I am important".


Gives information in a visual way and helps the reader understand exactly what something looks like and understand an idea from the text that might be unclear. Photographs are usually done with a camera.


Gives visual information that helps the reader understand what something looks like. Drawings are usually depicted by someone else and often done in pencil, crayon, paint or marker.

close Up

Visual information that helps the reader see the details in something small.


Explains what is shown in a picture or illustration and helps the reader identify a picture of photograph and its parts.


One to five sentences explaining what is shown in a picture.


A drawing that shows or explains something and helps readers to understand steps or how objects are made or formed.


Organizes large amounts of information in a small space. Information is in chronological (time) order and helps the reader understand the order of events and how one event might lead to another.


Organizer data like numbers and amounts in a small space and helps the reader compare information.


Drawing that show the basic shape of the land and helps the reader understand where things are in the world or where an event happens.


Provides more information than is in the text about a topic and helps the reader by emphasizing important information.

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