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James I

D: King of England after the death of Elizabeth I who left him many acievements to be able to begin colonization.
S: 1606- He charters the London Company to colonize America- 1607- founded Jamestown


D: Products of the Protestant Reformation who believed in an omnipotent God predestined some people to salvation and damned others throughout eternity.
S: These people wanted to "purify" the Church of England and had transformed the face of England and America.


D: English Protestants who wanted to seperate, rather than reform the Church of England.
S: They founded Plymouth and made a government with the Mayflower Compact.


D: Cristian sect founded by Geroge Fox- they reject sacraments, rituals, formal ministry.
S: Their beliefs of not needing ministry to teach themselves religion was an example of how the colonists were able to resist social control by Britain.

Patrick Henry

D: A young man who proposed 5 resolutions protesting the Stamp Act, those of which were not supported.
S: Newspapers throughout America printed false info about his resolutions, and the Virginia Resolves were called an "alarm bell".

Samuel Adams

D: A part of the first/second continental congress, also a signer of the declaration of independence.
S: Was one of the most radical of the Sons of Liberty and part of leadership of Boston Tea Party, and other acts against the British.

Glorious Revolution

D: English revolution of 1688, overthrow of James II and made Parliament have power over the monarch.
S: Made clear to the people the principal of "Parliamentary Soverignty" and tried hard to take control of the colonists.


D: The King of Spain's Armada attacks England during the Elizabethan Age.
S: The tough Spanish Armada is defeated by England whose ships were small and sleek, Elizabeth being in charge- Leads to C.O.E. reform and later colonization.


D: Opposed to the church/clergy for its influence in political or social affairs, and more.
S: Had reprecussions of religious movements and attempts to make more stable government.

Navigation Acts

D: Acts made from Parliament- 1. No ship can trade in colonies unless made in England 2. Goods transshipped through England 3. Taxes collected at colonial ports 4. Tightened procedures
S: These acts basically led the colonists to want to revolt.

Great Awakening

D: A sudden series of Protestant revivals in colonial America ranging from the 1730s-1760s.
S: Rebellious religious changes allowingthe colonies to create a more american identity and more unity.

George Whitefield

D: Preacher from England who was an effective public speaker in the colonies from NH-GA.
S: He was involved with the Great Awakening which led to other speakers enlighting others.

Cotton Mather

D: He was involved with the Salem Witch Trials and wrote many compositions that influenced people to want religious freedom.
S: Cotton Mather was involved in a few key religious movements of people that wanted to have different religious rights.

Parliamental Sovereignty

D: A principle of British constitution that makes Parliament the supreme legal authority in Britain.
S: Parliament took advantage of this, and made the colonists mad with all the acts they passed.

Albany Congress

D: British officials invite representatives from Virginia, Maryland, and northern colonies to Albany to discuss relations with the Iroqouis in 1754.
S: The Albany Plan was created and later led to the French and Indian War, allowing the British and colonists to have a plan.

First Continental Congress

D: Gathering of 55 delagates from 12 colonies (GA agreed to action chosen) in Philadelphia 1774 to make a desicion about what needs to be done with England.
S: Allowed the colonies and leaders to be more unified, and come up with desicions to stop England from their unfair acts.

3 Advantages Americans had that neutralized Britain

D: Americans had- 1. knowledge of the terrain on which they fought 2. experienced military leaders 3. French ally
S: These advantages allowed a victory for americans, and the French to block off the British in the major ports.

New York/ New Jersey Campaign

D: Series of battles to take hold of New York/ New Jersey colonies between the British and colonists.
S: The largest battle of the war was fought near Manhattan, and Washington took many defeats. Although, the army fought through it and had a few victories for morale.


D: Victory at Saratoga 1777- colonists force General "Johnny" Burgoyne to surrender
S: Increased French trust in American Army, allowed them to be allies. Britain also tended to keep their troops along coast.


D: Americans and French cause General Cornwallis to surrender at Yorktown in 1781
S: French naval force defeated British fleet and blocked them from entering Chesapeake Bay- Britain couldn't be aided.

William Bradford

D: A Separatist who sailed to America in 1617 with the rest of his group to make sure their kids weren't becoming Dutch in their towns in the Netherlands.
S: He wrote "Of Plymouth Plantation", one of the first writings of early American settlement that influenced Pilgrims.

Oliver Cromwell

D: A skilled general and commited Puritan who governed England after the beheading of Charles I in 1649.
S: Was called "Lord Protector", and his death lead to the Restoration of the Stuarts.

Robert Walpole

D: A Whig who worked during George I and George II reigns, and became a sole leader in the cabinet.
S: Called the "First Prime Minister of Great Britain", and showed how the Whigs had power in Parliament.

Charles II

D: Governed England after Oliver Cromwell, who struggled getting along with Parliament.
S: As Protestant and Catholic issues happened everywhere, the Whig party develops.

Thomas Paine

D: Wrote "Common Sense", a best-selling essay in 1776 which simply disagreed with England's government and how the colonists were treated.
S: Persuaded ordinary people to sever their ties with Britain; it was time for an independent republic.

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