90 terms


Prevention and control measures, Occurrence, Distributions, Determinants
Measures of Epidemiology
Mortality, Morbidity, Infant mortality, Life expectancy
Principles of Social Justice
Equity, Diversity, Supportive environments
Trends for the survival rates for Cancer:
Both males and females are increasing
Three priority issues
1. Groups experiencing health inequities
2. High level of preventable chronic disease, injury and mental health problems.
3. Growing and ageing population
Statistics about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People
1. Leading causes of death: Circulatory disease, cancer, diabetes and respiratory diseases.
2. 4-5 times more likely to die from preventable causes.
3. More likely to die from transport accidents, intentional self-harm, assault.
What contributes to the poor health of Indigenous people?
Social factors: e.g. dispossession, dislocation and discrimination.
Disadvantages: e.g. education, housing, income, employment.
Physical environmental factors.
Health inequalities experienced by people living in rural or remote areas.
Poorer health status, higher death rates, lower life expectancy (decreases with remoteness)
How can the poorer health status of rural communities be explained?
1. Lack of access to health services
2. Lower socioeconomic status
3. Occupational hazards
4. Poorer living conditions
What are the three major Cardiovascular conditions?
1. Coronary heart disease
2. Stroke
3. Peripheral vascular disease
What is cardiovascular disease?
All the diseases and conditions of the heart and blood vessels
Risk factors of Cardiovascular disease
Non-modifiable: Age, Heredity, Gender
Modifiable: Smoking, High BP, high blood fats, overweight and obesity, lack of physical exercise.
Protective Factors for Cardiovascular disease
Maintain healthy BP and Blood Cholesterol, Healthy lifestyle choices (not smoking, food, physically activity, weight).
What are the four classifications of cancer?
1. Carcinoma - cancer of epithelial cells (skin, mouth, throat, breasts and lungs)
2. Sarcoma - cancer of bone, muscle of connective tissue
3. Leukaemia - cancer of the blood-forming organs
4. Lymphoma - cancer of infection-fighting organs
Trends/ Statistic of Cancer
- Second most common cause of death
- Increase in cancer incidence
What are the groups at risk of cancer?
Smokers, socio-economically disadvantaged, high-fat, low-fibre diet, family history, fair skin, sun exposure, women who have never given birth.
Growing and ageing population
Older Australians = 65 years and over
Make up 13% of population, predicted to rise between 27-30% by 2051
Leading cause of death in this age group is heart disease and cerebrovascular disease (stroke).
What is causing the ageing population to grow?
- Families are having fewer children
- Living longer
What is community care?
A program to assist the elderly to manage daily activities within their home.
What are the two types of residential aged care?
1. Low level - assistance with meals, laundry, cleaning and personal care.
2. High level - provides nursing care, meals, laundry, cleaning and personal care.
What are the categories of Health Services?
1. Public health services
2. Primary care and community health care services
3. Hospitals
4. Specialised health services
What does public health focus on?
a) prevention, promotion and protection
b) populations
c) factors and behaviours that cause illness
What is the private sector?
private hospitals, specialist doctors, private GPs, physiotherapy, dentistry, pharmacy, chiropractic, raidology and many other services.
What is Medicare?
Allows simple and equitable access to all Australian citizens. Is designed to protect people from costs of sickness. Provides free or subsidised medical care, free public hospital treatments. Based on Universality, equity and simplicity.
What is the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS)?
Subsidises most prescription medicines.
5 Action areas of the Ottawa Charter
1. Developing personal skills
2. Creating Supportive Environments
3. Strengthening community action
4. Reorienting health services
5. Building healthy public policy
Measuring Health Status
Role of Epidemiology
Measures of Epidemiology
Identifying Priority Health Issues
Social Justice Principles
Priority Population Groups
Prevalence of Condition
Potential for Prevention & Early Intervention
Costs to the Individual & Community
Groups Experiencing Health Inequities
Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islanders
Socioeconomically Disadvantaged
Rural & Remote Areas
Preventable Chronic Disease, Injury & Mental Health
Cardiovascular Disease
Respiratory Disease
Mental Health
Growing & Ageing Population
Healthy Ageing
Increased Population with Chronic Disease
Demand for Health Services & Workforce Shortages
Availability of Carers & Volunteers
Health Care in Australia
Range & Types of Health Services
Responsibility for Health Services
Equity of Access to Health Services
Health Care vs Prevention Expenditure
Impact of Emerging Treatments & Technologies
Health Insurance (Medicare vs Private)
Complementary & Alternative Health Care
Reasons for Growth
Range of Products & Services
Making Informed Consumer Choices
Health Promotion Based on the Ottawa Charter
Levels of Responsibility for Health Promotion
Benefits of Partnerships in Health Promotion
How Ottawa Charter Promotes Social Justice
Ottawa Charter in Action
Health priority issues
Aboriginal population, low economic status, rural areas, prevalance of certain diseases, the structure of the pop e.g. aging population
Health status
Pattern of the general health of a population over time
The study of disease in groups or populations through the collection of data/info to indentify patterns/causes
The no. of cases of diseases in a population at a specific time
The no. of new cases of disease occuring in a population
Observations/statistics gathered via epidemiology help:
Describe/compare the patterns of the health of groups, communities & populations
Identify health needs/allocate health-care resources
Evaluate health behaviours/strategies to control/prevent disease
Epidemiology uses statistics on:
Births, deaths, disease prevalance & incidence, hospital use
Limitations of epidemiology
Does not tell us WHY a disease/illness occurs, does not always show signficant variations in health status among pop. subgroups e.g. Aboriginal & non-Aboriginal, might not accurately indicate quality of life e.g. disability/handicap, does not account for health determinants e.g. social, economic, environmental factors
Measures of epidemiology
Mortality, infant mortality, morbidity, life expectancy
Refers to the no. of deaths in a given pop. from a particular cause and/over a period of time
The incidence/level of illness, disease or injury in a given pop
Life expectancy
The length of time a person can expect to live referring to the average no. of years of life based on current death rates
Infant mortality
Refers to the no. of infant deaths in the first year of life per. 1000 live births
Improvements in life expectancy can be attributed to:
Lower infant mortality, education of risk factors e.g. P.E classes, declining death rates from CVD e.g. physical activity promotion, declining overall death rates from cancer e.g. breast screening, falls in death rates from traffic accidents e.g. drink driving campaigns
Current trends in life expectancy
Major factor increasing life expectancy= reduction in infant mortality rate
Life expectancy improvements in 1st half of the 20th c
Pneumonia + influenza=major cause of sickness/death
Attributed to: improved public health measures e.g. water/food quality, medical advances e.g. penicillin/immunisation programs
Life expectancy improvements in 2nd half of the 20th c
Lifestyle-related diseases major cause of sickness/death not so much infectious diseases-e.g. CVD
Attributed to: national public health strategies e.g. quit smoking programs, medical advances e.g. HPV immunisations, education
Main causes of mortality in males (05):
1. Coronary heart disease, 2. lung cancer, 3. Cerebrovascular disease 4. Other heart diseases, 5. Prostate cancer
Main causes of mortality in females (05):
1. Coronary heart disease, 2. cerebrovascular disease, 3. other heart diseases, 4. dementia/related disorders, 5. breast cancer
Trends in mortality
Death rates (Aus) have fallen due to treatment/managment of infectious disease + improvements in sanitation/living conditions, understanding of infectious disease, development/use of antibiotics + vaccines
Trends in CVD:
Decrease in death rate due to advances in treatment e.g. early detection
Trends in cancer:
Most common: lung cancer in males, breast cancer in females, increased incidence over 20 yrs, mortality rates fallen for both m/f, prevention/treatment strategies e.g. pap smears, breast screening, prostate examinations
Trends in other causes of death:
Motor vehicle accidents fell--seatbelts made compulsory in the 70's, road safety legislation e.g. drink driving
Differences in health status by gender:
Biological & behaviour factors, notions of masculinity e.g. not going to the doctor, risk taking, contact sports, males are exposed to more occupational hazards e.g. chemical handling, hospital admission rates higher for females: pregnancy, childbirth, gestational diabetes etc.
Identifying priority health issues
Social justice principles, priority pop groups, prevalance of condition, potential for prevention/early intervention, costs to the individual & community
Social justice principles
Inequities in the incidence, prevalence of sickness/death, inequalities in the social, economic, political & cultural factors that influence health
Social justice principles cont'd
Provision of equal access to resources (equity), health services (acess), education & information (participation)
Priority pop groups
Subgroups of people who have signficantly diff health statuses e.g. Indigenous communities, low-socioeconomic status, rural areas
Prevalence of condition
Can indicate the potential for change in a health area, high prevalance of disease= economic burden on the health system--e.g. CVD is the leading cause of preventable death in Aus
Potential for prevention/early intervention
Majority of disease/illness results from poor lifestyle behaviours--socio-economic status, access to info/health services, employment stat=determinants of health inequities
Costs to the individual
Individual: loss of productivity/quality of life, emotional stress, financial loss-->the cost of treatment, medication, rehab
Costs to the community
Illness, disease, premature death=economic burden on community
Direct costs (to the community)
Diagnosing, treating, money spent on prevention e.g. medical services, hospital admissions, pharmaceutical prescriptions, prevention intiatives, screening
Indirect costs (to the community)
Output lost when people become too ill to work/die prematurely e.g. cost of forgone earnings, absenteeism & the retraining of replacement workers
Groups experiencing health inequities
Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islanders, socioeconomically disadvantaged
General term covering all disease of the heart/circulatory system: damage to, or disease of, the heart, arteries, veins &/or smaller blood vessels, major health/economic burden in Aus, males are more likely die from CVD
Coronary heart disease
Poor blood supply to the muscular walls of the heart by its own blood supply vessels; the coronary arteries
The interruption of the supply of blood to the brain
Peripheral vascular disease
Diseases of the arteries, arterioles & the capillaries that affect the limbs, usually reducing blood supply to the legs
Extent of CVD in Aus
National Health Survey 05': 3.7 mill Aus'ns have health problems related to CVD-->leading cause of death, declining prevalence of CVD is due to: reduction in the levels of risk factors e.g. reduced smoking, diet modifications..improved medical care/treatment-->reduced mortality/improved quality of life..leading cause of disability, 6% of hospitalisations in 05-06
A large group of diseases that are characterised by the uncontrolled growth/spread of abnormal cells. --mutation originating from a single cell that is damaged/influenced by a foreign agent
Not cancerous, grow slowly, surrounded by a capsule that controls spread..surgically removed, may cause some damage by robbing surrounding tissue of nutrients, interfering with vital organ function
Cancerous, no restraining capsule, can spread, starves surrounding tissue of nutrients/invades healthy tissues, causes sickness/death
Factors influencing cancer
90% of cancers are a product of an individual's environment/lifestyle, carcinogens= agents that cause cancers e.g. chemicals, pollution, radiation, cigarette smoke, dietary factors, alcohol
Extent of cancer in Aus
Prevalance= increasing, most significant increases in the past 2 decades= breast cancer + skin cancer/melanoma & prostate cancer due to ageing pop, better detection of cancer, new diagnostic/screening programs
Risk factors for cancer
1. lung cancer: tobacco smoking, occupational exposure to cancer-causing agents (carcinogens) e.g. asbestos. 2. breast cancer: family history, high-fat diet/obesity, benign breast disease. 3. skin cancer: fair skin, prolonged exposure to the sun
Protective factors for cancer
1. lung cancer: avoid exposure to tobacco smoke, avoid exposure to hazardous materials e.g. asbestos. 2. breast cancer: consume a diet high in fruit/veges, low in fat, practice self-examination, regular mammograms (over 50), 3. skin cancer: avoid sunlight, reduce exposure to the sun (hat, sunscreen etc.)
Healthy ageing
Gov has responded to the ageing pop by encouraging people to plan for financial security e.g. superannuation..People who achieve/maintain good health are less likely to: leave the workforce for health reason, access health/aged care facilities later in life, place less pressure on the national health budget/health care system
Risk factors that contribute to the health status of older people
High blood cholesterol, diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, physical inactivity, risky alcohol consumption, smoking, poor diet
Protective factors that contribute to the health status of older people
Influenza vaccinations, behaviours that counter the risk factors e.g. having a balanced diet, social support, access to services
Nature of Injury
- preventable impact on health
- Types of Injury: self harm/suicide, falls, poisnionings, drownings, road traffic related, work place related, sport related, burns, assults.
Extent of Injury
Decline in recent years due to reduction of road accidents.
- 2.1 Millon live with chronic health conditions due to injury.
Cause 7.5% death in 2005 of which:
- 29% suicide
- 21% falls
- 17% Transport related
Males nearly twice as likely to suffer and die from injury.
Risk Factors of Injury
Self harm/suicide: poor mental health, drug abuse, difficulties seeking support.
Transport Injuries: speeding, drink driving, driver fatigue, being a young male.
Recreational Activities: activity against the rules, climatic conditions.
Workplace Injuries: Short cuts on safety measure, indurstrail/trade work.
Protective Factors of Injury
self Ham/suicide: education programs on mental health, support programs, programs to help people seek support.
Transport Injuries: Education and safe driver prgrams, safer roads, safer vehicles, speed and safety cameras, funded black spots.
Recreational Injuries: Adequate physical preparartion and correct training.
Workplace Injuries: OHS policies and practices, employers tacking interest in wellbeing of employees.
Nature Socioeconmically Disadvantaged:
- lower life expectancy
- higher rates of premature mortality
- ^ incidence and prvalance of disease
- ^ Presence of risk factors
- Higher rates of CVD, Diabetes, asthma, mental health probs, obesity
- Likely to smoke, be physically inactive, poor eating habits,
Gov and Community response to Socioeconomiclly Disadvataged:
- free low cost medicare and PBS
- Promotion of health education through media
- Education through schools
- Self healp and aid programs