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Biology 190 Exam 2
Terms in this set (31)
Which of the following best describes the structure of a biological membrane?
two layers of phospholipids with proteins either crossing the layers or on the surface of the layers
Which of the following is a reasonable explanation for why unsaturated fatty acids help keep any membrane more fluid at lower temperatures?
the double bonds form kinks in the fatty acid tails, preventing adjacent lipids from packing tightly
Celery stalks that are immersed in fresh water for several hours become stiff and hard. Similar stalks left in a 0.15 M salt solution become limp and soft. From this we can deduce that...?
the fresh water is hypotonic and the salt solution is hypertonic to the cells of the celery stalks
Which of the following statements about osmosis is correct?I
the presence of aquaporins (proteins that form water channels in the membrane) should speed up the process of osmosis
The difference between pinocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis is that...?
pinocytosis is nonselective in the molecules it brings into the cell, whereas receptor-mediated endocytosis offers more selectivity
Which of the following is characterized by a cell releasing a signal molecule into the environment, followed by a number of cells in the immediate vicinity responding?
A drug designed to inhibit the response of cells to testosterone would almost certainly result in which of the following?
a decrease in transcriptional activity of certain genes
Energy is observed in two basic forms: potential and kinetic. Which of the following correctly matches these forms with a source of energy?
the covalent bonds of a sugar molecule: potential energy
For living organisms, which of the following is an important consequence of the first law of thermodynamics?
the organism ultimately must obtain all of the necessary energy for life from its environment
Which of the following types of reactions would decrease the entropy within a cell?
Which of the following is most similar in structure to ATP?
an RNA nucleotide
Which of the following is NOT a way in which an enzyme can speed up the reaction that it catalyzes?
which of the following is NOT a way in which an enzyme can speed up the reaction that it catalyzes?
During a laboratory experiment, you discover that an enzyme-catalyzed reaction has a G of -20 kcal/mol. If you double the amount of enzyme in the reaction, what will be the G for the new reaction?
Some of the drugs used to treat HIV patients are competitive inhibitors of the HIV reverse transcriptase enzyme. Unfortunately, the high mutation rate of HIV means that the virus rapidly acquires mutations with amino acid changes that make them resistant to these competitive inhibitors. Where in the reverse transcriptase enzyme would such amino acid changes most likely occur in drug-resistant viruses?
in or near the active site
When you have a severe fever, what grave consequence may occur if the fever is not controlled?
change in the tertiary structure of your enzymes
A series of enzymes catalyze the reaction X → Y → Z → A. Product A binds to the enzyme that converts X to Y at a position remote from its active site. This binding decreases the activity of the enzyme.
What is substance X?
Which of the following describes the process of glycolysis?
it represents the first stage in the chemical oxidation of glucose by a cell
The free energy for the oxidation of glucose to CO2 and water is -686 kcal/mol and the free energy for the reduction of NAD+ to NADH is +53 kcal/mol. Why are only two molecules of NADH formed during glycolysis when it appears that as many as a dozen could be formed?
most of the free energy available from the oxidation of glucose remains in pyruvate, one of the products of glycolysis
A glucose molecule is completely broken down to carbon dioxide and water in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, but together these two processes yield only a few molecules of ATP. What happened to most of the energy that the cell obtains from the oxidation of glucose?
it is stored in NADH and FADH2
What fraction of the carbon dioxide exhaled by animals is generated by the reactions of the citric acid cycle, if glucose is the sole energy source?
Which of the following statements about the chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP is correct?
the chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP requires that the electron transport in the inner mitochondrial membrane be coupled to proton transport across the same membrane
Approximately how many molecules of ATP are produced from the complete oxidation of two molecules of glucose (C6H12O6) in aerobic cellular respiration?
The ATP made during fermentation is generated by which of the following?
In alcohol fermentation, NAD+ is regenerated from NADH by...?
reduction of acetaldehyde to ethanol (ethyl alcohol)
Which kind of metabolic poison would most directly interfere with glycolysis?
an agent that closely mimics the structure of glucose but is not metabolized
If photosynthesizing green algae are provided with CO2 containing heavy oxygen (18O), later analysis will show that all of the following molecules produced by the algae contain 18O except...?
When light strikes chlorophyll molecules, they lose electrons, which are ultimately replaced by...?
Reduction of oxygen to form water occurs during...?
In a plant cell, where are the ATP synthase complexes located?
thylakoid membrane and inner mitochondrial membrane
C4 plants occur more commonly in desert conditions because...?
they can fix carbon at the lower CO2 concentrations that develop when the stomata are closed
In mitochondria, the electron transport chain translocates protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space, whereas in chloroplasts, the electron transport chain translocates protons from...?
the storm to the thylakoid space
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