LEC. 4: Social/antisocial Behaviors

moral judgements
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Terms in this set (37)
early view of prosocial behaviorthe act of helping others for reasons of empathy and sympathyempathyemotional reaction to another's emotional state that is similar to that person's state or conditionsympathyfeeling of concern for another person's emotional state or conditionlater view of prosocial behavioracting in a way that is consistent with one's own conscience and moral principleswhy is perspective taking so critical?child must be able to differentiate between others' and own emotionstimeline of the development of prosocial behavior*6-14 months: child becomes upset when someone else is upset *by age 2: child tries to comfort others, but often their comfort is egocentric *between ages 2-3: these acts are more frequent, but still not regular; see both comfort and helping/watching behaviorbiological factors of prosocial behavior-genes (identical twins are more similar) -temperamentenvironmental factors of prosocial behaviorparents: -model and communicate values -set up opportunities for prosocial activitiessupportive and constructive parenting style=higher prosocial behaviorphysical punishment, threats, and authoritarian parenting=lower sympathy and prosocial behaviorwhat decreases motivation for prosocial behavior?-rewards for prosocial behavior decrease motivation for later prosocial behavior if the reward is not present -punishment leads the child to believe the reason for helping is to avoid own punishmentenvironmental factors of prosocial behavior: TV and video games- most TV and video games have little prosocial content -effects are not long lasting, but they are increased when parents role play the behavior seen on TVagressionvoluntary behavior intended to harm or injure another personantisocial behaviorbehavior that violates accepted norms for conduct such as theft, lying, etc.development of aggressive behavior*18 months-2 yrs: physical aggression present early on but decreases as verbal skills improve *preschool age: instrumental aggression and relational aggression both present *elementary school age: reactive or hostile aggression and proactive aggression presentinstrumental aggressionaggression used to get a concrete goal, such as a toyrelational aggressionaggression that harms others by damaging their peer relationshipsreactive/hostile aggressionaggression used to hurt another person or protect the self (physical)proactive aggressionpurposeful aggression used to bully others and get what is desired or neededenvironmental factors: family coercionineffective discipline and family coercion -inconsistent administration of discipline -low parental monitoring of activities -parents "give in" parental conflict -stress experienced in home life *all leads to aggressionenvironmental factors: socioeconomic status (SES)-lower SES= greater behavior problems *high rates of family stress and neighborhood violence, single-parent families, teenage parents, etc.biological factors of aggression-evidence of genetic influences -more difficult temperament related to higher rates of aggression -ties to hormones (esp. testosterone) -evidence of neurological deficits (some cases)parental punitiveness causing agggressionabusive punishment may unfluence antisocial and aggressive behaviors *cultural variationenvironmental factors of aggression: peer influencesfriends and peer group -aggressive kids play/hang out with aggressive kids who model and reinforce behaviors -being delinquent exposes you to more delinquent peers (ex: detention)developmental pathways of aggression/antisocial behavior1. life-course persistent pathway 2. adolescent-limited pathwaylife-course persistent pathway*early starters - pathway leading to higher rates of ADHD, more neurological deficits, and higher levels of familial discordadolescent-limited pathway*late starters -pathway related to temporary situational factors -wanting adult privileges (alcohol, money, cigarettes, sex, etc.) -antisocial behavior declines when those things become available through socially accepted ways