34 terms

Chapter 2--Population

APHG Rubenstein Chapter 2
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age cohort
Individuals from the same generation and thus affected by similar societal events such as an economic depression or war.
agricultural density
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.
Agricultural Revolution
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
pro-natalist
an attitude or policy that encourages child bearing
anti-natalist
concerned with limiting population growth
arithmetic density
The total number of people divided by the total land area (population density)
census
A complete enumeration of a population.
contraception
the use of devices or drugs to prevent conception
crude death rate (CDR)
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
crude birth rate (CBR)
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
demographic transition
The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
demography
The scientific study of population characteristics
dependency ratio
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compared to the number of people active in the labor force.
doubling time
the number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
ecumene
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
non-ecumene
The uninhabited,or very sparsely inhabited portions of the world.
Industrial Revolution
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
infant mortality rate (IMR)
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1,000 live births in a society.
life expectancy
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
Medical Revolution
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.
natural increase rate (NIR or RNI)
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
overpopulation
The number of a people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
physiological density
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
population agglomeration
A cluster of people living in the same area.
population pyramid
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
replacement fertility
The number of children a couple must have to replace themselves (averages 2.1 in more developed nations, 2.7 in less developed nations).
sex ratio
The number of males per 100 females in the population.
total fertility rate (TFR)
The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years.
zero population growth (ZPG)
A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
elderly support ratio
The number of working-age people (ages 15-64) divided by the number of persons 65 and older
epidemiologic transition
The a distinctive cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition. Explains how countries' population changes.
epidemiology
The branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that are prevalent among a population at a special time and are produced by some special causes not generally present in the affected locality.
maternal mortality rate
annual number of deaths of women from pregnancy-related causes per 100,000 live births
pandemic
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.