43 terms

Back, Vertebral Column and Spinal Cord

Intervertebral discs
pads of fibrocartilage that separate the vertebrae
nucleus pulposus
inner component of intervertebral discs
annulus fibrosus
Composed of fibrocartilage, it is the outer portion of the intervertebral disc.
cerebrospinal fluid
the fluid in and around the brain and spinal cord
intervertebral foramina
openings found between adjacent vertebrae where spinal nerves pass through and connect to the spinal cord
primary curvature
Curvature present from early fetal development. Thoracic and sacrococcygeal (pelvis) both of which are concave anteriorly
secondary curvature
Curvature that develops after the primary curvature is already established. Cervical and lumbar, both convex anteriorly.
exaggerated posterior curvature of the thoracic spine (hunchback)
abnormal anterior curvature of the lumbar spine (sway-back condition)
an abnormal lateral curve to the vertebral column
Anterior Longitudinal Ligament
a ligament that courses from superior to inferior along the anterior surfacesa of all vertebral bodies it lies directly posterior to the thoracic and abdominal viscera Prevents hyperextension of the vertebral column (from occipital bone to sacrum)
posterior longitudinal ligament
a ligament that courses from superior to inferior along the posterior surfaces of all vertebral bodies it is broader at the intervertebral disks and narrow at the vertebral bodies which gives it a scalloped edge; it is located in the vertebral canal; it is NOT penetrated by the needle during spinal tap (from C2 to sacrum) Helps prevent hyper-flexion and posterior protrusion
Supraspinous Ligament
interconnects the tips of the spinous processes from C7 to the sacrum
Ligamentum flavum
connects the laminae of adjacent vertebrae, yellow in color
Interspinous Ligaments
connect adjacent vertebral spines
Spinal arteries
Arteries that arise from segmental arteries and communicate with the posterior and anterior spinal arteries; they provide blood supply to the cervical (occipital, vertebral, deep cervical and accending cervival), thoracic (posterior intercostals), lumbar (subcostal and lumbar), and sacral regions (iliolumbar and lateral sacrals) of the spinal cord.
Paresis and paralysis
weakness of loss of function due to a loss of blood supply to a region of the spine
external vertebral venus plexus
lies external to the vertebral column, drain into the vertebral, intercostal, the lumbar and the lateral sacral veins
internal vertebral venus plexus
lies within the vertebral canal, drain into the vertebral, intercostal, the lumbar and the lateral sacral veins
superficial back muscles
trapezius, latissimus dorsi, levator scapulae, rhomboid major, rhomboid minor
intermediate back muscles
1) Serratus posterior superior
2) Serratus posterior inferior
Used for respiration
Deep back muscles
purpose is to extend, rotate and stabilize the vertebrae, erector spinae muscle group
erector spinae
3 columns- (iliocostalis-lateral); (longissimus-middle); (spinalis-medial), prime function is back extension. these three muscles have a common origin in a broad tendon attached inferiorly to the posterior aspect of the iliac crest, the posterior sacrum, sacroiliac ligaments and the lumbar and sacral spinous processes
auscultatory triangle
Boundaries: latissimus dorsi, trapezius, medial border of scapula, the rhomboid major forms the floor.

Site where breath sounds are most easily heard
lumbar triangle
Common side for posterior abdominal hernia (pus might emerge) Bounded by: latissimus dorsi, crest of ilium, external oblique muscle
spinal cord
a major part of the central nervous system which conducts sensory and motor nerve impulses to and from the brain
dura mater
thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord
arachnoid mater
delicate web-like layer of the meninges; middle layer
pia mater
the highly vascular innermost of the 3 meninges
subarachnoid space
a space in the meninges beneath the arachnoid membrane and above the pia mater that contains the cerebrospinal fluid
cervical and lumbar enlargements
locations of the spinal chord that give rise to the brachial and lumbar plexuses (respectively)
filum terminale
This structure is made up of pia mater. It anchors the brain and spinal cord to the coccyx
ventral and dorsal roots
31 pairs of pinal nerver are attached to the spinal cord by these roots, ventral- motor, dorsal - sensory . dorsal root possesses a dorsal root ganglion
cauda equina
collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord
ventral ramus
innervates ventral and lateral skin and muscles of the trunk, and gives rise to nerves of the limbs
dorsal ramus
provides sensory/motor innervation to the skin and muscles of the back
denticulate ligament
Band of pia mater that anchors dura mater to cord
spina bifida
results when the vertebral laminae fail to fuse, presents as lack of a spinous process and is most commonly seen at the lower lumbar or sacral vertebral levels
spina bifida occulta
one or more spinous processes fail to form at the lumbar or sacral levels
spina bifida cystica
a cyst protrudes through the defect in the vertebral arch - may result in hydrocephalus and neurological deficits
spina bifida cystica with meningocele
a protrusion of the membranes of the spinal cord through a defect in the spinal column, the cyst is line by the meninges and contains CSF
spina bifida cystica with meningomyelocele
a protrusion of the membranes and the spinal cord through the defect in the vertebral column. results in bladder, bowel, or lower limb weakness
Lumbar puncture
removal by centesis of fluid from the subarachnoid space of the lumbar region of the spinal cord for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, this is done above or below the fourth lumbar spine