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openings found between adjacent vertebrae where spinal nerves pass through and connect to the spinal cord
Curvature present from early fetal development. Thoracic and sacrococcygeal (pelvis) both of which are concave anteriorly
Curvature that develops after the primary curvature is already established. Cervical and lumbar, both convex anteriorly.
Anterior Longitudinal Ligament
a ligament that courses from superior to inferior along the anterior surfacesa of all vertebral bodies it lies directly posterior to the thoracic and abdominal viscera Prevents hyperextension of the vertebral column (from occipital bone to sacrum)
posterior longitudinal ligament
a ligament that courses from superior to inferior along the posterior surfaces of all vertebral bodies it is broader at the intervertebral disks and narrow at the vertebral bodies which gives it a scalloped edge; it is located in the vertebral canal; it is NOT penetrated by the needle during spinal tap (from C2 to sacrum) Helps prevent hyper-flexion and posterior protrusion
Arteries that arise from segmental arteries and communicate with the posterior and anterior spinal arteries; they provide blood supply to the cervical (occipital, vertebral, deep cervical and accending cervival), thoracic (posterior intercostals), lumbar (subcostal and lumbar), and sacral regions (iliolumbar and lateral sacrals) of the spinal cord.
Paresis and paralysis
weakness of loss of function due to a loss of blood supply to a region of the spine
external vertebral venus plexus
lies external to the vertebral column, drain into the vertebral, intercostal, the lumbar and the lateral sacral veins
internal vertebral venus plexus
lies within the vertebral canal, drain into the vertebral, intercostal, the lumbar and the lateral sacral veins
superficial back muscles
trapezius, latissimus dorsi, levator scapulae, rhomboid major, rhomboid minor
intermediate back muscles
1) Serratus posterior superior
2) Serratus posterior inferior
Used for respiration
Deep back muscles
purpose is to extend, rotate and stabilize the vertebrae, erector spinae muscle group
3 columns- (iliocostalis-lateral); (longissimus-middle); (spinalis-medial), prime function is back extension. these three muscles have a common origin in a broad tendon attached inferiorly to the posterior aspect of the iliac crest, the posterior sacrum, sacroiliac ligaments and the lumbar and sacral spinous processes
Boundaries: latissimus dorsi, trapezius, medial border of scapula, the rhomboid major forms the floor.
Site where breath sounds are most easily heard
Common side for posterior abdominal hernia (pus might emerge) Bounded by: latissimus dorsi, crest of ilium, external oblique muscle
a major part of the central nervous system which conducts sensory and motor nerve impulses to and from the brain
thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord
a space in the meninges beneath the arachnoid membrane and above the pia mater that contains the cerebrospinal fluid
cervical and lumbar enlargements
locations of the spinal chord that give rise to the brachial and lumbar plexuses (respectively)
This structure is made up of pia mater. It anchors the brain and spinal cord to the coccyx
ventral and dorsal roots
31 pairs of pinal nerver are attached to the spinal cord by these roots, ventral- motor, dorsal - sensory . dorsal root possesses a dorsal root ganglion
innervates ventral and lateral skin and muscles of the trunk, and gives rise to nerves of the limbs
results when the vertebral laminae fail to fuse, presents as lack of a spinous process and is most commonly seen at the lower lumbar or sacral vertebral levels
spina bifida cystica
a cyst protrudes through the defect in the vertebral arch - may result in hydrocephalus and neurological deficits
spina bifida cystica with meningocele
a protrusion of the membranes of the spinal cord through a defect in the spinal column, the cyst is line by the meninges and contains CSF
spina bifida cystica with meningomyelocele
a protrusion of the membranes and the spinal cord through the defect in the vertebral column. results in bladder, bowel, or lower limb weakness
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