24 terms

Chapter 15: Section 3

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Political Machines
Corrupt organized groups that controlled political parties in the cities. A boss leads the group and attempts to grab more votes for his party.
Tweed Ring
a corrupt political organization that controlled New York City government during the gilded age.
Tammany Hall
Political machine in New York, headed by Boss Tweed.
Thomas Nast
Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.
kickbacks
Taking illegal payments for services made.
spoils system
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
Andrew Jackson
started the spoils system
Harper's Weekly
Newspaper Thomas Nast worked for
Credit Mobilier scandal
scandal in the 1870s when a railroad construction company's stockholders used funds that were supposed to be used building the Union Pacific Railroad for their own personal use; to avoid conviction, stockholders even bribed congressmen and the vice president
$23 million
Amount of money that American tax payers did not need to give to actually build the railroads.
Whisky Ring
They bribed tax collectors to rob the Treasury of millions of excise-tax revenues. Grant said that no guilty man involved should escape prosecution, but he discovered that his private secretary was involved and helped exonerate him. Grant's secretary of war was also involved in accepting bribes from suppliers to Indian reservations.
President Heyes
issued an executive order that prohibited government employees from managing political parties or campaigns
Stalwarts
Republican in the 1870s who supported Ulysses Grant and Roscoe Conkling; they accepted machine politics and the spoils system and were challenged by other Republicans called Half-Breeds, who supported civil service reform.
James A. Garfield
(1881) Second president to ever be assassinated. He was assassinated 6 months after his inauguration.
Charles Guiteau
an American lawyer who assassinated President James A. Garfield on July 2, 1881. He was executed by hanging. believed that killing Garfield would help the Stalwarts
Chester A. Arthur
took Garfield's place when he was assinated. Turned against the spoils system and passed the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act
Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act
1883 reform law that replaced the patronage/spoils system in the federal bureaucracy with a merit-based professional system. "Important" leadership positions in bureaucracy (Secretaries, Commissioners, Directors) & federal judges still appointed by president.
National Grange
Social and educational organization founded in 1867 to gain more political representation for farmers and to improve their living standards.
Munn. vs. Illinois
gave state legislators the right to regulate businesses that involved the public interest
Wabash v. Illinois
federal government could regulate railroad traffic
-buying equipment
-marketing farm products
-lobbied for banking reform
-lobbied for railroad rate regulation
What did the farmers alliance help with? (4)
Colored Farmer's Alliance
Organization formed in the 1880s after black farmers were denied membership in the Farmer's Alliance. Advocated hard work and sacrifices as keys to getting equality.
money was tied by the gold standard, but farmers wanted to be backed by silver as well
What did farmers want to ease inflation?
Populist Party
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies