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Republic
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
Northwest Ordinance
Legislation passed by congress that set up guidelines for the admission of new states. This applied to the areas of the Northwest Territory.
Louisiana Purchase
The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.
Thomas Jefferson
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
Lewis and Clark
Sent on an expedition by Jefferson to gather information on the United States' new land and map a route to the Pacific. They kept very careful maps and records of this new land acquired from the Louisiana Purchase.
Sacagawea
Native American woman that helped Lewis and Clark
New Orleans
Important to USA because this was the port city for Western farmers. The Mississippi River was the highway for these farmers and their products
Napolean
Leader of France at the time of Louisiana Purchase
Alexander Hamilton
Delegate to the Constitutional Convention and leader of the Federalists; first secretary of the treasury. Killed by Aaron Burr
Aaron Burr
Jefferson's Vice President; killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel
Duel
a prearranged fight with deadly weapons by two people (accompanied by seconds) in order to settle a quarrel over a point of honor
John Marshall
Created the precedent of judicial review; ruled on many early decisions that gave the federal government more power, especially the supreme court,
Judiciary Act 1801
a law that increased the number of federal judges, allowing President John Adams to fill most of the new posts with Federalists
Midnight Judges
a nick name given to group of judges that was appointed by John Adams the night before he left office. He appointed them to go to the federal courts to have a long term federalist influence, because judges serve for life instead of limited terms
Marbury v Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review
Judicial Review
the power of the supreme court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional
War of 1812
Resulted from Britain's support of Indian hostilities along the frontier, interference with American trade, and impressments of American sailors into the British army (1812 - 1815)
Blockade
the shutting of a port to keep people or supplies from moving in or out
James Madison
Strict constructionist, 4th president, father of the Constitution, leads nation through War of 1812
Embargo
ban on trade with another country
Impressment
British practice of taking American sailors and forcing them into military service
William Henry Harrison
Governor of the Indiana territory, that fought against Tecumseh and the Prophet in the battle of Tippecanoe
Tecumseh
Shawnee leader who attempted to organize an Amerindian confederacy to prevent the loss of additional territory to American settlers. He became an ally of the British in War of 1812
War Hawks
members of Congress who wanted to fight Great Britain
Doves
people who opposed the war
Andrew Jackson
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
Battle of New Orleans
Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S.
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
Armistice
an agreement to stop fighting
Industrial Revolution
the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation
Infrastructure
the basic support systems needed to keep an economy going, including power, communications, transportation, water, sanitation, and education systems
Henry Clay
Senator who persuaded Congress to accept the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Maine into the Union as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state
American System
Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.
National Road
First national road building project funded by Congress. It made travel and transportation of goods much easier because it was one continuous road that was in good condition.
Erie Canal
A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.
Tariff of 1816
This protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.
McCulloch v Maryland
Maryland was trying to tax the national bank and Supreme Court ruled that federal law was stronger than the state law
John Quincy Adams
Sixth president of the United States He was in favor of funding national research and he appointed Henry Clay as his Secretary of State. During his presidency the National Republicans were formed in support of him.
Nationalism
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
Adams Onis Treaty
an 1819 agreement in which Spain gave over control of the territory of Florida to the United States
James Monroe
He was the fifth President of the United States. He is the author of the Monroe Doctrine. Proclaimed that the Americas should be closed to future European colonization and free from European interference in sovereign countries' affairs. It further stated the United States' intention to stay neutral in European wars
Monroe Doctrine
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Missouri Compromise
Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36˚ 30' within the Louisiana Territory (1820)
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