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State of being a victim


Capeable of being a victim


An asymetrical relationship that is abusive, painful, destructive, parasitical, and unfair


One who victimizes another


Absence of a clearly defined victim

Victim precipitation

Degree to which a victim is responsible for his/her own victimization

Marvin E. Wolfgang

Studied victim precipitation in homicides, 26% of homicides in philadelphia between 1948 and 1952 resulted from victim precipitation, similarities in philadelphia demographics were similar to u.s. demographics

According to Marvin E. Wolfgang

The victims were first to: show a deadly weapon, strike a blow, resort to physical violence

Menachem Amir

Developed the controversial victim precipitated rape terminology.

Victim Precipitated Rape

Victim deemed to have agreed sexual relations but retracted before the act, did not react strongly enough when suggestion was made by the offender

Precipitation Factors of Rape

Alcohol use by victims, revealing clothing, use of risque language, bad reputation, wrong place wrong time, some victims have unconsciou need to be sexually controlled through rape. Victims putting themselves in risky situations such as use of indecent language/gestures.

Criticism to Rape Precipitation

Relying on police accounts, procedural errors, ill-conceived theoretical issues, needed more accurat definition

Types of victims

Victims of a criminal, one's self, social environment, technology, natural environment

Karmen's Theory of victimology

Study reasons of why or how the victim entered a denagerous situtaion, evaluate how the criminal justice system interacts with the victim, evaluates the effectiveness of efforts to reimburse victims and meet their personal and emotional needs

Problems with UCR

Definition issues, lack of reporting, decriminalization, lack of information on offenders/victims, hierarchy rule

4th Generation of Victim surveys

National crime victimization survey (NCVS)


Victims reveal information about incidents not known by police, Victimization data provides information about the victim-offenser relationship (if offender is known)

Repeat Victimization

Occurance of crime involving the same victim or the same location, is indicated by greater incidents than number of victims

Prevalent Data

Number of individuals who experience victimization over a period of time

Incident Data

Total number of incidents reported over the time period

Study Findings of Victimization

Best predictor of victimis, when victimization reocurrs it does quickly, offenders take advantage of the opportunities that appear in the first offense

Crisis Reaction Stages

Impact, recoil, reorganization, strained relationships

System Participation

Ordered to appear multipile times, long uncomfortable waits, ignored by enforcement and prosecution personnel, may not be asked to testify, excluded from plea bargain process, lost time, lost income, emotional stress

Presidents Task Force on Victims in Crime

Prosecutors enhance communication with victims, greater victim input, protects victims from harassment, honor scheduled comitments, return property promptly, improve overall services

Derivative Victims

Indirect victims- resuce workes, witnesses/ large-scale events- schools

Criminal's as Victims

Physical injury, Emotional distress, crisis reaction stages

Advantages of UCR

Data compiled annually from jurisdictions aroudn the country, standardized crim definitions, large amounts of information about particular crimes (specialized data bases)

Types of Physical Injuries

Immediate injures that heal with no trace, injuries that leave visible scars, unknown long-term, long-term catastrophic

Deterrence Theory

If ounishment for a crime outweighs the benefit of committing the crime then the crime will not be committed

Charecteristics of Victim Precipitated Homicide

Previous interpersonal relationship, small-argument, use of alcohol/drugs

Criticisim to Precipitation

Relying on police accounts, procedural errors, ill-conceived theoretical issues, eneded more accurate definition of precipitation

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