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An asymetrical relationship that is abusive, painful, destructive, parasitical, and unfair
Marvin E. Wolfgang
Studied victim precipitation in homicides, 26% of homicides in philadelphia between 1948 and 1952 resulted from victim precipitation, similarities in philadelphia demographics were similar to u.s. demographics
According to Marvin E. Wolfgang
The victims were first to: show a deadly weapon, strike a blow, resort to physical violence
Victim Precipitated Rape
Victim deemed to have agreed sexual relations but retracted before the act, did not react strongly enough when suggestion was made by the offender
Precipitation Factors of Rape
Alcohol use by victims, revealing clothing, use of risque language, bad reputation, wrong place wrong time, some victims have unconsciou need to be sexually controlled through rape. Victims putting themselves in risky situations such as use of indecent language/gestures.
Criticism to Rape Precipitation
Relying on police accounts, procedural errors, ill-conceived theoretical issues, needed more accurat definition
Types of victims
Victims of a criminal, one's self, social environment, technology, natural environment
Karmen's Theory of victimology
Study reasons of why or how the victim entered a denagerous situtaion, evaluate how the criminal justice system interacts with the victim, evaluates the effectiveness of efforts to reimburse victims and meet their personal and emotional needs
Problems with UCR
Definition issues, lack of reporting, decriminalization, lack of information on offenders/victims, hierarchy rule
NCVS v. NCR
Victims reveal information about incidents not known by police, Victimization data provides information about the victim-offenser relationship (if offender is known)
Occurance of crime involving the same victim or the same location, is indicated by greater incidents than number of victims
Study Findings of Victimization
Best predictor of victimis, when victimization reocurrs it does quickly, offenders take advantage of the opportunities that appear in the first offense
Ordered to appear multipile times, long uncomfortable waits, ignored by enforcement and prosecution personnel, may not be asked to testify, excluded from plea bargain process, lost time, lost income, emotional stress
Presidents Task Force on Victims in Crime
Prosecutors enhance communication with victims, greater victim input, protects victims from harassment, honor scheduled comitments, return property promptly, improve overall services
Advantages of UCR
Data compiled annually from jurisdictions aroudn the country, standardized crim definitions, large amounts of information about particular crimes (specialized data bases)
Types of Physical Injuries
Immediate injures that heal with no trace, injuries that leave visible scars, unknown long-term, long-term catastrophic
If ounishment for a crime outweighs the benefit of committing the crime then the crime will not be committed
Charecteristics of Victim Precipitated Homicide
Previous interpersonal relationship, small-argument, use of alcohol/drugs
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