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1. expanded ends of long bones
2. exterior is compact bone, and the interior is spongy bone
3. joint surface is covered with articular (hyaline) cartilage
4. Epiphyseal line separates the diaphysis from the epiphysis.
outer- dense irregular connective tissue
inner- osteoblasts and osteoclasts
nerve fibers/blood/lymphatic vessels
Collagen fibers which penetrate the bone. The attachment is so strong that even with severe traction injuries the tendon usually does not "pull out" of the bone but instead either tears or a fragment of bone is pulled out with the inserted collagen fibers (known as an avulsion fraction).
Connective tissue membrane covering internal bone surfaces
Structure of short, irregular, flat bones
compact bone on the inside
spongy bone (diploe) on inside
bone marrow between trabeculae
Central canals surrounded by osteons; contain the blood vessels and nerves that serve the bone
mature bone present in normal adult stages; collagen fibers are perfectly arranged in a parallel pattern so they can withstand torsional stress
Channels lying at right angles to the central canal, connecting blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to that of the Haversion Canal
Mature cells, develop from osteoblasts, control day-to-day activities (each occupies a lacuna, a pocket sandwiched between layers of matrix
small hair-like canals extending from the central canal. Allow for diffusion of nutrients, waste products, hormones, etc. to lacunae.
How to trabeculae help with bone stress
they line up alone the line of force to help deal with multi-direction foraces
large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix, releasing calcium ions into the blood - perimeter of bone
how does ossification through age?
embryo - ossificaiton -> bone formation
early adulthood - ossification -> bone growth
adult - ossification -> bone remodeling/repair
Bone growth within a membrane (mesenchyme)
Forms flat bones of the skull, some facial bones, mandible, and clavicle
the most common bone formation process, which involves the replacement of hyaline cartilage (developed by mesenchyme) with bone
Long bone growth
Cartilage proliferation on epiphyseal side of epiphyseal disk
• Ossification (conversion to bone) occurs on diaphyseal side of epiphyseal disk
bones: sex hormones
estrogen and testosterone tell you when to stop growing.
gives qualities of male and female.
growth at the outer surface of a bone during endochondral ossification, resulting in an increase in the bone's THICKNESS, Compact bone thickens and strengthens long bone with layers of circumferential lamellae
cholecalciferol, In the presence of Sun; epidermal cells produce cholecalciferol (vit D3)...the liver and kidneys convert D3 into Calcitriol (important in bone & nerve conduction; and aids in absorption of calcium and phosphorus)
process of bone demineralization or the breaking down of bone into mineral components
calcium is needed
1. The process of bone formation
2. Coagulation of blood
3. Excitation of cardiac and skeletal muscle
4. Maintenance of muscle tone
5. Conduction of neuromuscular impulses
6. Synthesis and regualtion of the endocrine and exocrine glands
Control of Remodeling
controlled by Hormonal mechanisms that maintain calcium homeostasis in the blood, and Mechanical and gravitational forces
Rising blood Ca triggers
thyroid to release calcitonin stimulates calcium salts to be deposited in bone
Falling blood Ca triggers
parathyroid gland to release PTH, osteoclasts to degrade bone and release Ca into blood
Parathyroid hormone; secreted by the parathyroid gland; PTH regulates uptake of calcium (Ca) from the bones into the blood
Curved bones are thickest where they are most likely to buckle
Long bones are thickest midway along the shaft (bending stress is greater) + hollow or filled with far
Large bony projections occur where heavy, active muscles attach
Stages of Healing of a bone Fracture
hematoma formation (mass of clotted blood), fibrocartilaginous callus formation (soft tissue forms & phagocytic cells begin cleaning debris), bony callus formation (Osteoclasts remove dead cells & cartilage & osteoblasts secrete new matrix) Bone Remodeling
abnormal softening of bones caused by deficiencies of phosphorus or calcium or vitamin D
childhood disease caused by deficiency of vitamin D and sunlight associated with impaired metabolism of calcium and phosphorus
abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium
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