Unit 10 - 20th Century Revolutions and WWII

Rowlatt Acts
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Rowlatt Acts, (February 1919), legislation passed by the Imperial Legislative Council, the legislature of British India. The acts allowed certain political cases to be tried without juries and permitted internment of suspects without trial. This was a denial of rights which then lead to protests against the imperial government.
The Amritsar massacre, took place on 13 April 1919 when a crowd of nonviolent protesters, along with Baishakhi pilgrims, who had gathered in Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, Punjab, were fired upon by troops of the British Indian Army under the command of Colonel Reginald Dyer, after being locked in. This led to brewing feelings of anger which changed loyal British subjects to nationalists.
Gandhi's strategy was to peacefully disobey in order to show the British that they wouldn't want to control the Indians because of the initial convincing of not being able to control the Indians even if they wanted to.
*ordered policy of noncooperation when British failed to punish officers responsible for the Amritsar Massacre
SovietsSoviets were groups of the working class people in league with some soldiers that supported Lenin and his ideasRed vs. White ArmyRed army: Bolsheviks on Lenin's side, fighting for communism vs the White army: conservatives who wanted the czar back. They fought a civil war, where the US attempted to aid the White Army. The Red army won, 14 million deaths, communist party takes overVladimir LeninCommunist with goals of dividing wealth to the people from previous imperialistic rule, had an assisting government who helped him make decisions and pass acts such the NEPJoseph StalinHe tried to restore the Russian economy by implementing the five year plan, would eliminate people who seemed threatening, complete autocracy and totalitarian ruleNEPThe NEP proposed by Vladimir Lenin represented a more capitalism-oriented economic policy, deemed necessary after the Russian Civil War of 1917 to 1922, to foster the economy of the country, which was almost ruined. The complete nationalization of industry, established during the period of War Communism, was partially revoked and a system of mixed economy was introduced, which allowed private individuals to own small enterprises, while the state continued to control banks, foreign trade, and large industries. In addition, the NEP abolished prodrazvyorstka (forced grain requisition) and introduced prodnalog: a tax on farmers, payable in the form of raw agricultural product.Stalin and Mao's 5-year PlanSimilarities: collective farms, propaganda to convince people to contribute, took land from the peasants Differences: Russia used state farms China's plan failed and Russia's succeeded Initial Goals: Development of economyFactors of discontent that led to the fall of the Chinese emperordidn't want to be under imperial rule because they were humiliated from WWI in the Treaty of Versailles (no land returned), wanted modernization and nationalization (Kuomintang was fighting for these things)Failures of the Kuomintang/ popularity of the Communist partyKuomintang: did not have the authority and military support to unify China, there were local revolts, they made false promises. This caused the popularity of the Communist party because the promises of democracy and rights were not followed through on, which lead peasants to support and follow Mao and the communists1939 suspension of the Communist civil war in ChinaJapan took advantage of China's weakened state and invaded them. This united the opposite sides for a little while against the common enemy of Japan. But after the Chinese fought off Japan, the civil war started up again.Great Leap ForwardThe Great Leap Forward of the People's Republic of China (PRC) was an economic and social campaign by the Communist Party of China (CPC) from 1958 to 1961. This movement was led by Mao and aimed to rapidly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a socialist society through rapid industrialization and collectivism. However it is widely considered to have caused the great famine.Communes/ collective farmsLeaders such as Mao and Stalin had people work collectively on labor farms to produce food and raw goods, enhancing the country's production and industries.Chinese Red Guard and the Cultural RevolutionRed Guard: the young kids that felt indebted to Mao for their prosperous childhood so they fought on his side for communism instead of learning in classrooms. The Cultural revolution: Mao wanted social equality and ordered the Red Guard to kill and imprison intellectuals, because those types of people were considered useless. The perfect person was the working peasant.Characteristics and methods of totalitarianismCharacteristics: controlled every aspect of society. Traits include state control of individuals, and society, various methods of enforcement, a dynamic leader with goals for the state, and dictatorship and one party rule. Methods include: propaganda, secret police, indoctrination, censorship, and persecutionIndoctrinationthe forcible pushing of ideas and cultures onto a people, a system where ways and methods are not allowed to be questioned without punishmentExamples and goals of propaganda postersgoals of propaganda: recruiting followers, patronizing the leaders, nationalism/pride, motivating people to work harderWar reparations and European economic depression of the 1920sEurope was in debt because of the huge cost of the war, countries such as Germany started to print more money to "help" the economy which lead to inflation, prices went up so high, bread would cost over two billion marks in Germany(Charles) Dawes Acthe proposed that the American banks should loan money to help the German economy and stabilize the currency. This plan was a success, because Germany started to produce as many goods as it did before the war. The war reparations were finally paid off in 2010Black Thursday and the 1929 stock market crashBlack Thursday: When every person sold all their stocks and investors lost all their money. 1929 stock market crash: all stocks were sold, the market crashed, and everyone lost their moneyIntellectual, philosophical, cultural/social, artistic, and musical trends of the post-WWI generationtheory of relativity: space and time are not constant, psychology is created (Sigmund Freud: id and super-ego), writers reflect social concerns which lead to horror and psychological thrillers, lost generation writers, uncertainty in philosophy lead to existentialism (Sartre: no meaning to life, Nietzsche: no objective truth, God is dead, Kierkegaard: truth is subjectively experienced, faith is personal), art: surrealism, cubism, and expressionismFailures of Treaty of Versailles and why they caused WWIIFailures: Blamed everything on the Germans and didn't give Japan the land they deserved Caused: Aggression between Germany and Japan and the allies which led to warBenito MussoliniItalian politician, journalist, and leader of the National Fascist Party, ruling the country as Prime Minister from 1922 until he was ousted in 1943.Adolf HitlerGerman politician who was the leader of the Nazi party, Chancellor of Germany from 1933-1945 when he surrendered from the war and committed suicide. He was responsible for the genocide of nearly 6 million Jewish people.Fascism & NazismFascism: In Italy, supported by Mussolini, rose to popularity because Mussolini promised to regain territory and they needed a strong leader. Key principles included to revive the economy, against democracy with a one party rule. Supporters were the middle class and they were called "The Black Brigades", attacked communists and socialists using secret police Nazism: In Germany, supported by Hitler, promised wealth to the people and promised to get rid of communists, wanted to overturn the T of V, principles included to combat communism and the Germans are the master race. Supporters included nationalists who were confused after the great depression, supporters were known as Nazis. They wore brown uniforms with the swastika symbol. Used totalitarianism and harsh laws, and used the Gestapo to enforce.lebensraum"living space", the concept that Hitler believed in to justify the expansion of Germany's territory. He believed that Germany was too overcrowded.aryan raceThe Aryan race was a racial grouping commonly used in the period of the late 19th century to the mid-20th century to describe peoples of European and Western Asian heritage. This was what Hitler believed to be the perfect German. He wanted to make sure all of Germany could be aryan so he needed to kill off anyone who didn't fit those standards including Jews, homosexuals, or people with special needs or disorders.series of events that led to the declaration of warJapanese blame government for depression and military leaders take control, Japan attacked Manchuria to industrialize (during Meiji era) to prevent westernization, the League of Nations protests the invasion and Japan withdraws, this inspired Mussolini and Hitler to plan their invasions Mussolini invaded Ethiopia and gained control, the League of Nations did nothing about it, Hitler moved troops into rhineland (buffer between Germany and France, illegal). Britain took the appeasement approach, Italy and Germany signed a pact with Japan and formed the Axis Powers Japanese conquered Beijing, Nanjang, etc Americans supported isolationism, Neutrality acts passed, Hitler plans to invade Austria, France and Britain betray Austria, Hitler demanded Czechoslovakia to give up sudetenland, the Munich conference gave Hitler sudetenland but respected Czech borders Mussolini seized Albania and Hitler took total control Czechoslovakia Britain and France try to make an agreement with Stalin, Stalin signs a nonaggression pact with Hitler and vowed not to fight Germans surprise attack Poland using blitzkrieg, Britain and France declare war on GermanyappeasementGiving in, in hopes of calming enemy downAxis vs. AlliesAxis: Japan, Germany, Italy Allies: U.S., Britain, France (other small armies such as China, Australia, Canada)Nonaggression PactThe agreement that Joseph Stalin and Hitler signed that declared that they would not fight. This agreement broke after the invasion of the Soviet Unionmajor battles/ events in EuropeInvasion of Norway and Denmark: German surprise attack. Both were quickly conquered and Germany was then ready to invade Britain. Fall of France: French leaders surrender, Germans take control of the North and South is "free" under Vichy government. Battle of Britain: Germans used radar, ships, and planes in order to destroy British cities, but Britain held out. This was a turning point in the war War in N. Africa: Italy invaded British control Egypt under general Rommel (desert fox) which was a major failure for the Axis powers. War in the Balkans: Hitler wanted to attack USSR so he invaded Greece and Yugoslavia which both surrendered shortly, forced Bulgaria Romania and Hungary to join Axis. This prepared for attack on USSR Invasion of the USSR: Operation Barbarossa (Germans ordered to fire at everyone in the red army) Soviets used the scorched earth strategy to starve out the enemy. Germans surrendered because they weren't prepared for Russian winters--turning point and Hitler's first mistakeVichy governmentpuppet government in the South that collaborated with the Nazisblitzkrieg"lightning war", used by the Germans, the Germans used this technique against Poland, fast and powerful which led to Poland's quick surrenderearly successes for Hitler vs. turning point mistakesearly successes for Hitler: succeeded in invading Denmark and Norway, occupation of France, took over Balkans (to invade Soviets) turning point mistakes: the Battle of Britain where Britain didn't surrender, the invasion of the Soviet Union,Soviet strategy in response to Operation Barbarossathe Soviets started the "scorched-earth" policy which burned everything the enemy needed, and in 1941 there was a winter siege at Leningrad where the Germans were unprepared for the Russian winter and eventually surrendered at Stalingrad in 1943U.S. isolationismNeutrality acts isolated the U.S. from getting involved in the war in the slightest of ways (ex: selling weapons)Neutrality actsCongress passed 3 neutrality acts that banned loans and sale of arms to nations at warcash-and-carry policyU.S. will give arms and weapons to allied countries, only if they're willing to fully pay and transport on their own ships entirely.lend-lease actafter the failure of the cash and carry act, U.S. decided we can't sell weapons, but people could borrow them by leasing them.Atlantic CharterSecret pact between FDR and Churchill to protect free trade and to protect democracy. U.S. ship bombed by German submarine which led to undeclared naval warfarecause and effect of "the day that will live in infamy"Pearl Harbor Cause: the US put an embargo on oil trade with Japan, this angered the Japanese Effect: led to racist attitudes towards the Japanese, boats were destroyed and people were killed, US declared war on Japanmajor battles/events in the PacificPearl Harbor: Japanese bombed US naval base, led to declaration of war invasion of the Philippines: American and Filipino soldiers surrender and Japanese force them on a death march, allies forced to evacuate battle of the coral seas: introduction of kamikaze, epic failure for US, battle of midway: targeted by Japan but Americans found out, Americans planned a surprise attack, Japanese withdrew Island hopping/battle of guadalcanal: captured islands until Japan was in reach Guadalcanal: "island of death", used firebombing, divebombed in Berlin (in Europe) Iwo Jima: success for the US, lots of Japanese were killed Okinawa: tons of kamikazeBataan Death Marchafter the US and Filipino soldiers surrendered, Japanese soldiers forced them on a 90 mile death march with no food, water, or shelter. This was considered a war crime and Japanese soldiers were tried for it.U.S. strategy in the Pacific after Battle of MidwayIsland Hopping: Hoped to conquer many islands to eventually reach Japan. This cost lots of money but would have eventually worked Atomic Bomb: U.S. bombed Hiroshima and Nagasakitragedies of WWII/atrocities beyond the acceptable "acts of war"The Holocaust committed by the Germans, the Bataan death march committed by the Japanese. The US committed firebombing and dropped the atomic bomb but were not tried.HolocaustThe systematic murder of anyone inferior to the aryan German race (Jews, Gypsies, LGBTQ, disordered people)Nuremberg LawsAt the annual party rally held in Nuremberg in 1935, the Nazis announced new laws which institutionalized many of the racial theories prevalent in Nazi ideology. The laws excluded German Jews from Reich citizenship and prohibited them from marrying or having sexual relations with persons of "German or related blood."KristallnachtA.K.A.: "The night of broken glass" On November 9-10. 1938 Nazis in Germany torched synagogues, vandalized Jewish homes, schools, and businesses and killed close to 100 Jews.Hitler's initial planForce Jews out of the country and have others take them in as refugees. This failed because no other countries were willing to take in the Jewish people.Jewish ghettos and acts of resistance (Warsaw)Jews continued to practice in ghettos which included education on the religion and performing plays about their religion.Hitler's final solutionGenocide: exterminate every single Jewish personmajor battles/events that led to the end of the war in EuropeD-Day: the allies planned a surprise attack on Germany which liberated France. Battle of the Bulge: Soviet and allied forces advance to Germany. American defense pushes Germany backV-E DayVictory in Europe Day was the public holiday celebrated on May 8, 1945 to mark the formal acceptance by the Allies of WWII of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces.cause and effect of the atomic bomb (Hiroshima and Nagasaki)Cause: H-Japanese didn't agree with U.S. terms of complete surrender N-Still wouldn't surrendered (argued not enough time allotted) Effect: H-Total destruction, America first to use bomb E-Total destruction and Japan surrenderedYalta ConferenceThe February 1945 Yalta Conference was the second wartime meeting of British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin and U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. During the conference, the three leaders agreed to demand Germany's unconditional surrender and began plans for a post-war world.Nuremberg Trials24 Nazi leaders put on trial who were accused of: *crimes against peace *war crimes *crimes against humanity such as genocide *etc.U.S. occupation of Japan after surrender and its effectsImposed a democratic constitution which led to things such as women's suffrage, civil rights, and capitalism, but also the loss of culture and rape of Japanese and Korean women