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Place of Articulation

Location of the passive and active articulators.

Manner of Articulation

How close the articulators get and how that affects airflow.


Whether vocal cords are pulled back (voiceless or unvoiced) or vibrate (voiced) when a consonant sound is produced.


completely obstruct airflow. /b/, /p/


passive and active articulators are brought very close together and create friction as air passes through the mouth. /f/


Combine a stop and a fricative. (chatter)


Flow of air from the lungs through the nose. /m/, /n/, /v/


Distinguished by the position of the tongue. Articulators are near near each other but not enough to impede airflow entirely. /l/, /r/


Speech sound produced by transition from one speech sound to another. /w/, /j/

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