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Coming to Terms with Silence
Terms in this set (30)
country is governed by a hereditary ruler; can be either limited by a constitution or absolute, with the ruler controlling all aspects of life.
believed in natural rights- life, liberty and property; strongest influence on Thomas Jefferson, who wrote natural rights of the Declaration of Independence.
group who feared the new government created by the Constitution gave too much power to the national government at the expense of individual rights.
power is held at the national level, with very little power being held in political subdivisions, such as provinces, states, counties, parishes, or towns.
Bill of Rights
first ten amendments to the Constitution. added by the first Congress in 1791; protects the civil rights and liberties of the people.
idea that government should be organized and administered through compliance with a written or unwritten constitution that restrains governmental powers while guaranteeing rights to the people.
Checks and Balances
each branch of government is subject to constitutional restraints, or checks, by the other branches so no single branch becomes too powerful.
author of the Declaration of Independence with the idea of unalienable rights; did not participate in writing the Constitution because he was in France at the time; a strong advocate for the addition of a Bill of Rights.
government in which constitutions, statements of rights, and other laws define the limits of those in power, everyone, including all authority figures, must obey the laws.
government of a tribe which is distinct from other tribes as a matter of geography, native language, religion, and culture.
Divine Rights of Kings
belief that monarchs were chosen by God; gave the monarch unlimited authority.
Jewish and Christian principles about liberty, responsibility, hard work, ethics, justice, and equality that influenced the beliefs of the Founding Fathers.
supporters of the new Constitution who believed in strong central government with limited government and checks and balances.
philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people, and the only legitimate government is one based on the consent of the governed.
chosen to preside at the Constitutional Convention; 1st president of the U.S.; set precedent by stepping down after two terms, initiating peaceful transition of power.
Father of the Constitution; ideas essential to writing and ratification of the Constitution; also wrote first 10 amendments to the Constitution- Bill of Rights.
government where the will of the people is translated into public policy directly by the people themselves, in direct meetings; works only in small communities with problems that are few and relatively simple.
the people are the only source of power for any and all government actions; government can only govern with the consent of the governed.
fundamental rights or natural rights guaranteed to people naturally instead of by law; in the Declaration of Independence these are stated as the right to "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."
government in which an executive branch exists from the legislator; the chief executive is chosen by voters and appoints members of the Cabinet.
Separation of Powers
division of the powers in our government among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches; no one branch has too much power.
the distribution of power between the national government and the states within a union.
Social Contract Theory
in order for man to live in groups, he must give up some of his freedom to the government in exchange for protection of his natural rights.
government in which a country is ruled by immediate divine guidance or by officials who are regarded as divinely guided.
government with control over over some factors of production and economic life in a country with a goal of providing security and benefits to those less fortunate.
government in which an individual or group has unlimited authority, and individual rights are subordinate to that power; no restraints on power existed.
independent states unite to achieve a common goal, but each state retains control over powers within its borders.
representative democracy in which a small group of leaders, elected by the citizens, represents the concerns of the people.
considered intelligent and decisive, he was a leading supporter of the Constitution and helped write the Federalist Papers to convince states to ratify the document.
government in which the members of the executive branch (Prime Minister and member of the Cabinet) are chosen by the legislature and are accountable to the legislative branch.
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