MDMP

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Define the Military Decision Making Process
"An iterative planning methodology to understand the situation and mission, develop a course of action, and produce and operation plan or order.
What are the two types of planning?
Collaborative & Parallel
What are the design activities?
Understand, Visualize, Describe
What are the steps of MDMP?
1. Receipt of Mission // 2.Mission Analysis // 3.Course of Action Development // 4.Course of Action Analysis (Wargaming) // 5.Course of Action Comparison // 6.Course of Action Approval // 7.Orders Production
How many steps in Receipt of Mission?
6
How many steps in Mission Analysis?
18
How many steps in Course of Action Development?
8
How many steps in Course of Action Analysis?
8
How many steps in Course of Action Comparison?
3
Who is the most important participant in MDMP?
The Commander
What do commanders do during MDMP?
Drive the design process // Informal and frequent // meetings // Commanders are planners // Ensure approaches to planning meet specific requirements (simple, flexible plans work best)"
What does the CoS or XO do during MDMP?
1. Manages and coordinates the entire staff // 2. Clearly understands the commander's guidance/intent // 3. Provides time-lines, briefing instructions, and additional instructions"
What is the collective staff role in MDMP?
1. Help the CDR understand the situation // 2. Assist the CDR in making decisions // 3. Synchronize decisions // 4. Help CDR develop visualization // 5. Provide recommendations // 6. Produce orders"
What are the staff characteristics?
Competence, Loyalty, Team Player, Effective Manager, Effective Communicator, Confidence, Flexible, Creative, Initiative"
What are the inputs for Receipt of Mission?
Higher HQ plan or order & A new mission anticipated by the CDR"
What are the key outputs from Receipt of Mission?
1. Commander's Initial Guidance // 2. Initial allocation of time // 3. WARNO #1"
What are the 6 sub-steps to Receipt of Mission?
1. Alert the staff and other key participants, 2. Gather the tools, 3. Update running estimates, 4. Conduct initial assessment, 5. Issue the CDR's initial guidance, 6. Issue the WARNO
What are some examples of tools to gather during Receipt of Mission?
Appropriate FM's, Higher HQ order, Maps / Graphics, Intel and Assessment Products, SOPs, Running Estimates"
What do running estimates include?
Facts, Assumptions, Friendly Force Status, Enemy Activity / Capabilities, Civil Considerations, Conclusions and Recommendations"
What does the initial commander's guidance include?
Initial time allocation, Liaison officer exchange, Initiate ISR, Collaborative planning times and locations, Initial information requirements (IRs), Additional staff tasks
What does the initial WARNO include?
Type of operation, Location of operation, Timeline, Initial movement and ISR directives"
What is the 1/3 - 2/3 rule?
Higher HQ takes 1/3 of time to plan, gives 2/3 of time to lower echelons to plan
What are the inputs for Mission Analysis?
Higher HQ Plan/Order, Intel from Higher HQ, Products from other organizations, Updated running estimates, Initial CDR Guidance, Design concept
What are the outputs from Mission Analysis?
1. Problem Statement, 2. Mission Statement, 3. Initial CDR Intent, 4. Initial CCIR and EEFI, 5. Initial CDR Planning Guidance, 6. Updated IPB products, and Running Estimates, 7. Assumptions, 8. COA Evaluation Criteria, 9. WARNO #2"
What is the purpose of Mission Analysis?
1. Refines the commander's situational understanding and determines their mission, 2. Enables better commander's visualization of the purpose of the operation
What are sub-steps 1 through 8 of Mission Analysis?
1. Analyze the higher HQ Plan/Order, 2. Perform initial IPB, 3. Determine specified, implied and essential tasks, 4. Review available assets and identify resource shortfalls, 5. Determine constraints, 6. Identify critical facts and develop assumptions, 7. Begin Risk Management, 8. Develop initial CCIR and EEFI
What are sub-steps 9 through 18 of Mission Analysis?
9. Develop initial information collection plan, 10. Update plan for use of available time , 11. Develop initial themes and messages, 12. Develop a proposed problem statement, 13. Develop a proposed mission statement, 14. Present the MA brief, 15. Develop and issue initial CDR's Intent, 16. Develop and issue initial planning guidance, 17. Develop COA evaluation criteria, 18. Issue WARNO #2"
What is the commander and staff's aim when analyzing the higher HQ order?
"Determine how their unit, by task and purpose, contributes to the mission, commander's intent, and concept of operations of the higher HQ"
When analyzing the higher headquarters plan or order, mission analysis sub-step 1, what must the commander and staff completely understand?
1. Commander's Intent, 2. Mission, 3.Concept of Operations, 4.Available Assets, 5.Timeline, 6. Missions of adjacent, supporting and supported units, 7. Missions of interagency, intergovernmental, and NGOs working in the operational area, 8.Assigned area of operations"
What are the four steps of IPB?
1. Define the Operational Environment, 2. Describe the effects of the environment on operations, 3. Evaluate the threat, 4. Determine threat COAs"
What is a specified task?
a task specifically assigned to a unit by its higher headquarters. Specified tasks can be found in paragraphs 2 and 3 of the higher headquarters order or plan.
What is an implied task?
a task that must be performed to accomplish a specified task or mission but is not stated in the higher HQ order.
What are the two types of implied task missions?
1. Be-prepared mission: assigned to a unit that might be executed, 2. On-order mission: to be executed at an unspecified time"
What is an essential task?
a specified or implied task that must be executed to accomplish the mission. They are always included in the unit's mission statement.
What areas must be analyzed during Review Available Assets and Identify Resource Shortfalls?
1. Additions to and deletions from current task-org, 2. Command and Support relationships, 3. Current capabilities/limitations of all units, 4. Consider relationships between specified, implied, and essential tasks and available assets.
What is a constraint?
a restriction placed on the command by a higher command; a constraint dictates an action or inaction, thus restricting the freedom of action of a subordinate commander.
What are plans and orders based on?
Facts and Assumptions
What is a fact?
a statement of truth or a statement thought to be true at the time
What is an assumption?
a supposition on the current situation or a presupposition on the future course of events, assumed to be true in the absence of positive proof
What is the Army's primary process for determining hazards and controlling risk during operations?
Composite Risk Management
What are the five steps of Composite Risk Management?
1. Identify Hazards, 2. Assess Hazards, 3. Make Decisions, 4. Implement Controls, 5. Supervise"
What are the two types of risk?
"Tactical Risk & Accidental Risk
Define Tactical Risk:
risk concerned with hazards that exist because of the presence of either the enemy or an adversary
Define Accidental Risk:
"includes all operational risk considerations other than tactical risk. It includes risks to the friendly force. It also includes risks posed to civilians by an operation, as well as an operation's impact on the environment."
Define CCIR as it applies to Mission Analysis:
What does the commander need to know in a specific situation to make a particular decision in a timely manner
What are the two types of CCIRs in MDMP?
Initial CCIR & Post COA CCIR
What elements are included in synchronization of ISR?
1. All assets the commander controls, 2. Assets made available from lateral units or higher echelons, 3. RFIs, 4. Intelligence reach to answer CCIR
What is an information theme?
a unifying or dominant idea or image that expresses the purpose for military actions
Define problem statement:
a statement of the problem to be solved
How does a staff identify and understand the problem?
They compare the current situation to the desired end state and brainstorm and list issues that impede the commander from achieving the desired end state"
Define Mission Statement:
"a short sentence or paragraph that describes the organizations essential task, or tasks, and purpose- a clear statement of the action to be taken and the reason for doing so; must answer who, what, where, when, why and how"
What is the purpose of the Mission Analysis brief?
1. Inform the commander of the results of the staff's analysis of the situation and helps the commander understand, visualize, and describe the operation, 2. Staff presents summary of their running estimates, 3. CDR issues guidance to the staff for continued planning based on situational understanding"
What two things does the commander's intent link?
The operations purpose with conditions that define the desired end state.
What are evaluation criteria?
factors the commander and staff will later use to measure the relative effectiveness and efficiency of one COA relative to other COAs
What two factors do evaluation criteria address?
factors that affect success factors that can cause failure
Who initially determines each proposed criterion with weights based on the assessment of its relative importance and the commander's guidance?
XO
What things must the Targeting Officer do during Mission Analysis?
Refine HPTL, Refine NAIs, Refine TSS/AGM, Refine TSM, Update Running Estimate, Identify initial ATO requirements
What is the most important step of MDMP?
Mission Analysis
What are the inputs for Course of Action (COA) Development?
1. Approved Problem Statement,2. Approved Mission Statement, 3. Initial CDR's Intent and Planning Guidance, 4. Specified and Implied Tasks, 5. Assumptions, 6. Updated Running Estimates and IPB Products"
What are the outputs from COA Development?
1. COA Statements and Sketches, 2. CDR's Refined Planning Guidance to include Wargame Guidance and Evaluation Criteria, 3. Updated Running Estimates and IPB Products, 4. Updated Assumptions, 5. Initial HPTL, TSS, AGM"
What are the screening criteria?
Feasible, Acceptable, Suitable, Distinguishable, Complete
Each COA must incorporate:
1. How the decisive operation leads to mission accomplishment, 2. How shaping operations create and preserve conditions for success of the decisive operation or effort, 3. How sustaining operations enable shaping and decisive operations or efforts, 4. How offensive, defensive, and stability or civil support tasks are accounted for, 5. Tasks to be performed and conditions to be achieved
What are the 8 steps of COA Development?
1. Assess relative combat power, 2. Generate Options, 3. Array Forces, 4. Develop a Broad Concept, 5. Assign Headquarters, 6. Prepare COA Statements and Sketches, 7. Conduct a COA Briefing, 8. Select or Modify COAs for Continued Analysis
Define Combat Power:
the total means of destructive, constructive, and information capabilities that a military unit/formation can apply at a given time
During Generate Options, what options are being generated?
Friendly options to defeat an enemy COA
What is the order for Generating Options?
1. Begins with Decisive Operation, 2. Then Shaping Operation, 3. Determine Supporting Operation, 4. Determine essential tasks for each operation, 5. Weigh COA against screening criteria (FASDC)"
What is meant by array forces?
Assessing relative combat power in time/space
What is a COA Statement?
Clearly portrays how the unit will accomplish the mission
What is a COA Sketch?
Provides a picture/graphic of the movement and maneuver aspects of the concept, including the positioning of forces
What will the COA Statement and Sketch cover for each subordinate unit?
The who (generic task org), what (tasks), when, where, and why (purpose)
What are the inputs for COA Analysis?
1. Updated IPB, 2. Updated Running Estimates, 3. Updated CDR Planning Guidance, 4. COA Statements and Sketches, 5. Updated Assumptions
What are the outputs for COA Analysis?
1. Refined COA, 2. Decision Support Template and Matrices, 3. Synchronization Matrices, 4. Potential Branches and Sequels, 5. Updated Running Estimates, 6. Updated Assumptions
What are the eight steps to COA Analysis?
1. Gather the Tools, 2. List all friendly forces, 3. List assumptions, 4. List known critical events and decision points, 5. Select War-Game method, 6. Select a technique to record and display the results, 7. War-game the operation and assess the results, 8. Conduct a war-game brief (optional)"
What is a critical event?
events that trigger significant action/decisions, complicated actions, and essential tasks
What is a decision point?
a point in time and space when the CDR or staff anticipates making a key decision concerning a specific COA & Requires decision by the CDR
What is the purpose of war-gaming?
1. Attempts to visualize the flow of the operation, identifying:, 2. Force strength and disposition, 3. Enemy capabilities and COAs, 4. Impacts to civilian personnel
What are the two forms of war-gaming?
1. Manual Method (tabletop) & 2. Modern Method (computer aided)
What is the process for conducting war-gaming?
"Action-Reaction-Counteraction & Blue-Red-Blue"
What are the War-gaming rules?
1. Remain objective, 2. Accurately record advantages and disadvantages of each COA as they emerge, 3. Continually assess screening criteria, 4. Avoid drawing premature conclusions and gathering facts to support such conclusions, 5. Avoid comparing one COA with another during the war-game"
If planning in a time-constrained environment, what operation should be war-gamed at a minimum?"
The Decisive Operation
What are the three war-gaming techniques?
1. Belt, 2. Avenue in Depth, 3. Box
Describe the Belt Technique:
-Works best in offensive and defensive operations on terrain divided into well-defined cross-compartments, during phased operations or when the enemy is deployed in clearly defined belts or echelons and is Based on sequential analysis of events to focus forces affecting a particular event
Describe the Avenue in Depth Technique:
One Avenue of approach at a time, that Begins with decisive operation and is good for offensive operations or in the defense when canalizing terrain inhibits support
Describe the Box Technique:
Detailed analysis of a critical area that Works best in time constrained environment such as a (hasty attack) and is conductive to noncontiguous AOs
What are the two techniques to Record and Display Results?
"Synchronization Matrix Technique & Sketch Note Technique
What are the inputs for COA Comparison?
1. war Game Results, 2. Evaluation Criteria, 3. Updated Running Estimates, 4. Updated Assumptions"
What are the outputs for COA Comparison?
1. Evaluated COA, 2. Recommended COA, 3. COA Selection rationale, 4.Updated Running Estimates , 5. Updated Assumptions"
What are the three sub-steps for COA Comparison?
1. Conduct Advantages and Disadvantages Analysis, 2. Compare COAs, 3. Conduct a COA Decision Brief"
What are the inputs for COA Approval?
Updated Running Estimates, Evaluated COA, Recommended COA, Updated Assumptions"
What are the outputs for COA Approval?
CDR selected COA and any modifications, Refined CDR's Intent, CCIR, and EEFI, Updated Assumptions, WARNO #3"
When does the CDR select a COA?
After the decision brief
What does the CDR provide after selecting a COA?
Final Planning Guidance, Updates to CDR's Guidance, CCIR, EEFI, Priorities of Resources, Acceptable Risk Guidance, WARNO Guidance"
What does WARNO #3 contain?
Mission, CDR's Intent, Updated CCIR and EEFI, Concept of Operations, AO Overview, Principle Tasks assigned to subordinate units, Preparation and Rehearsal Instructions, Final Time-line"
What are the inputs for Orders Production?
CDR's selected COA with any modifications, Refined CDR's Intent, CCIR, and EEFI, Updated Assumptions"
What are the outputs for Orders Production?
Operations Order (OPORD)
What are the three types of orders?
"Operations Order (OPORD), Fragmentary Order (FRAGO) Warning Order (WARNO)"
What is the five paragraph format for orders?
1. Situation, 2. Mission, 3. Execution, 4. Sustainment, 5. Command and Signal
What is order of supplements to an order?
"Annexes, Appendixes, Tabs, Exhibits
During what step of MDMP are Fire Support Tasks developed?
Receipt of Mission / Mission Analysis
Where do FSTs originate?
"-Directives from higher HQ, CDR's Guidance, Fire Support Planning Guidance, Scheme of Fires"
How many essential elements of an FST are there?
4
What are the essential elements of an FST?
Task, Purpose, Execution, Assessment"
What is the acronym used to specify the execution of the FST?
T T L O D A C
Define TTLODAC:
Target Number/Type, Trigger, Location, Observer, Delivery System, Attack Guidance / # of iterations, Communications Networks"
What additional information may be inclusive in the execution portion of the FST?
Priority, Allocation, Restriction / FSCM, Positioning Guidance",
What is a FAT?
Field Artillery Task
Define FAT:
FATs are generated from the Field Artillery associated requirements defined in the maneuver-oriented FSTs and are Tasks the FA must accomplish to achieve an FST"
What are the essential elements of a FAT?
"Task, Purpose, Method, Effects"
What are the three doctrinal types of operations?
Decisive, Sustaining, Shaping
What is collaborative planning?
Collaborative planning is commanders, subordinate commanders, staffs, and other partners sharing information, knowledge, perceptions, ideas, and concepts regardless of physical location throughout the planning process.
What is parallel planning?
Parallel planning is two or more echelons planning for the same operation sharing information sequentially through warning orders from the higher headquarters prior to the higher headquarters publishing their operation plan or operation order.
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