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AA chapter 2 exam


the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban

Manufactured goods

A product that has been processed with machinery

raw materials

Something used by an industry to be processed into a more finished state.


a policy of extending your rule over foreign countries


adoption of western ideas, technology, and culture


love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it

Cold War

A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.

arms race

a competition between nations to have the most powerful armaments

cash crops

crops that could be sold for money

economic dependence

when less developed nations export raw materials and commodities to industrial nations and import manufactured goods, capital and technology


making modern in appearance or behavior

economic diversity

producing various kinds of crops and goods so that the nation is no longer dependant on a single export.


a government tax on imports or exports


To change from government or public ownership or control to private ownership or control.


the ability to read and write

Newly Industrialized Countries

Countries that have moved from primary agriculture to manufacturing


an obligation to pay or do something

life expectancy

an expected time to live as calculated on the basis of statistical probabilities

population density

number of individuals per unit area

United Nations

an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security


a reciprocal relation between interdependent entities (objects or individuals or groups)

World Health Organization

a United Nations agency to coordinate international health activities and to help governments improve health services

African Union

A group of peacekeeping soldiers form various African nations mandated to report violations of cease- fire agreements, atrocities and killings occurring in Sudan in Dafur.


the state of having little or no money and few or no material possessions

Grameen Bank

bank that gives out small loans

Dr. Muhamad Yunus

was a professor of economics where he developed the concept of microcredit - loads are given to entrepreneurs too poor to quality for traditional bank loans - also the founder of Grameen Bank


people who flee their country because of persecution or danger


Use of terror or violence as a means of getting what you want

global economy

the economies of countries are linked in the marketplace

human rights

the basic rights to which all people are entitled as human beings

Helsinki Agreement

international accord that protects basic human rights


the practical application of science to commerce or industry

Stone Age

(archeology) the earliest known period of human culture, characterized by the use of stone implements


people who wander from place to place

Ice Age

any period of time during which glaciers covered a large part of the earth's surface


to tame; to bring plants or animals under human control

Agricultural Revolution

The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering


a quantity much larger than is needed


a society in an advanced state of social development (e.g., with complex legal and political and religious organizations)


scientists who study ancient bones and other objects


skilled workers


people from rich and powerful families


picture symbols


Followers of the religion of Islam


the revival of learning and culture


an equal exchange


a seat of government

Christopher Columbus

Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)

Second Agricultural Revolution

tools and equipment were modified, methods of soil preparation, fertilization, crop care, and harvesting improved the general organization of agriculture made more efficient

Industrial Revolution

the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation


individuals who start new businesses, introduce new products, and improve management techniques

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