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51 terms

AA chapter 2 exam

AA chapter 2 exam
STUDY
PLAY
Urbanization
the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban
Manufactured goods
A product that has been processed with machinery
raw materials
Something used by an industry to be processed into a more finished state.
imperialism
a policy of extending your rule over foreign countries
westernization
adoption of western ideas, technology, and culture
nationalism
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
Cold War
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
arms race
a competition between nations to have the most powerful armaments
cash crops
crops that could be sold for money
economic dependence
when less developed nations export raw materials and commodities to industrial nations and import manufactured goods, capital and technology
modernization
making modern in appearance or behavior
economic diversity
producing various kinds of crops and goods so that the nation is no longer dependant on a single export.
tariff
a government tax on imports or exports
privatization
To change from government or public ownership or control to private ownership or control.
literacy
the ability to read and write
Newly Industrialized Countries
Countries that have moved from primary agriculture to manufacturing
debt
an obligation to pay or do something
life expectancy
an expected time to live as calculated on the basis of statistical probabilities
population density
number of individuals per unit area
United Nations
an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security
interdependence
a reciprocal relation between interdependent entities (objects or individuals or groups)
World Health Organization
a United Nations agency to coordinate international health activities and to help governments improve health services
African Union
A group of peacekeeping soldiers form various African nations mandated to report violations of cease- fire agreements, atrocities and killings occurring in Sudan in Dafur.
poverty
the state of having little or no money and few or no material possessions
Grameen Bank
bank that gives out small loans
Dr. Muhamad Yunus
was a professor of economics where he developed the concept of microcredit - loads are given to entrepreneurs too poor to quality for traditional bank loans - also the founder of Grameen Bank
refugees
people who flee their country because of persecution or danger
terrorism
Use of terror or violence as a means of getting what you want
global economy
the economies of countries are linked in the marketplace
human rights
the basic rights to which all people are entitled as human beings
Helsinki Agreement
international accord that protects basic human rights
technology
the practical application of science to commerce or industry
Stone Age
(archeology) the earliest known period of human culture, characterized by the use of stone implements
Nomads
people who wander from place to place
Ice Age
any period of time during which glaciers covered a large part of the earth's surface
Domesticate
to tame; to bring plants or animals under human control
Agricultural Revolution
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
Surplus
a quantity much larger than is needed
Civilization
a society in an advanced state of social development (e.g., with complex legal and political and religious organizations)
Archeologists
scientists who study ancient bones and other objects
Artisans
skilled workers
Nobles
people from rich and powerful families
Pictographs
picture symbols
Muslims
Followers of the religion of Islam
Renaissance
the revival of learning and culture
Barter
an equal exchange
Capital
a seat of government
Christopher Columbus
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
Second Agricultural Revolution
tools and equipment were modified, methods of soil preparation, fertilization, crop care, and harvesting improved the general organization of agriculture made more efficient
Industrial Revolution
the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation
Entrepreneurs
individuals who start new businesses, introduce new products, and improve management techniques