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40 terms

CHAPTER 8: JUDAISM

STUDY
PLAY
Anti-Semitism
Idea that there is a racial, ethnic, genetic component of Judaism. Jews were a dangerous "mongrel" race.
Zionism
Jewish movement dedicated to the establishment of a politically viable, internationally recognized Jewish state in the biblical land of Israel.
Torah
Jewish Teachings. The five books of Moses: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy
Apocalypse
In Judaism and Christianity, the dramatic end of the present age.
Ashkenazim
An ethnic group of the Jews that migrated first to Italy, spread throughout central and Eastern Europe and thence to the Americas.
Tanakh
Hebrew Bible (Jewish Scriptures)
Ghetto
An urban area occupied by those rejected by society, such as quarters for Jews in some European cities.
Talmud
Great compendium of Jewish law and lore
Synagogue
"Meeting places" to read the Torah and to worship communally, praying simply and directly to God.
Halakah
Jewish legal decision and the parts of the Talmud dealing with laws.
Shekinah
settling of the divine presence of God, especially in the Temple in Jerusalem.
Hasidism
Path of ecstatic piety
Sephardim
(Second largest group) descendants of those who migrated to Spain from West Asia in the 8th and 9th C.
Kabbalah
(Middle Ages)-esoteric teachings. Jewish mystical tradition.
Sabbath
Day of the week set aside for rest and worship
Kosher
Ritually acceptable foods, applied to foods in Jewish Orthodoxy.
Reform or Liberal Judaism
Began in the mid 19th C.- help modern Jews appreciate their religion rather than regarding it as meaningless.
Messiah
The "anointed," the expected King and deliverer of the Jews
Rabbi
Teacher; the ordained spiritual leader of a Jewish congregation.
Midrash
Literature delving into the Jewish torah.
Midrash
Literature delving into the Jewish torah.
Pentateuch
"five books of Moses" that appear at the beginning of the Tanakh-most sacred part of the scriptures
Minyan
A quorum of ten adults males-had to be present for community worship.
Orthodox Judaism
Encourage Jews to live by halakah and segregate themselves from non-Jewish secular culture
Bar Mitzvah
Ceremony celebrating coming of age, at thirteen, in Jewish Boys.
Bat Mitzvah
Non-orthodox congregations for girls
Prophets
a person chosen to speak for God and to guide the people of Israel
Holocaust
The murder of almost six million European Jews by the Nazi-leadership of Germany during
Diaspora
mass-dispersions of people with common roots, expulsion of Jews from the Middle East
Covenant
A unique belief introduced into Jewish theology-idea of a special covenantal relationship between the Jewish people and God.
Monotheism
Belief in one god
Shabbat
primarily a day of rest and spiritual enrichment.
Rosh Hashanah
New Years Day. Is a time for spiritual renewal in remebance of the original creation of the world
Yom Kippur
Day of Atonement. A day set aside for fasting, depriving oneself of pleasures, and repenting from the sins of the previous year.
Yom Haatzuma-ut
holiday celebrating Israel's independence in 1948.
Yom Hashoah
Holocaust remembrance day
Sukkot
8-Day fall harvest festival. Sukkot is also known as the Festival of Booths and the Feast of Tabernacles. A simple outdoor booth is built and decorated as a dwelling place for 7 days. Done as a ritual to remind the faithful that their real home is in God, who sheltered their ancestors on the way from Egypt to the promised land of Canaan.
Hanukkah
Feast of dedication. Also known as the Festival of Lights, is an eight-day Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Holy Temple
Purim
Commemorates the legend of Esther.
Pesach
(Passover): Celebrates the liberation from bondage in Egypt and the springtime advent of new life. It was the tenth plague, death to all firstborn sons of the Egyptians, that finally brought the pharaoh to relent. Marked by a sedar dunner, with the eating of Matzah.