EMT Chapter 6
Terms in this set (212)
study of body structure, where organs and organ systems are located and how external injuries may effect internal systems.
study of body function, baseline idea of how the body should work normally. help identify abnormal functions.
the wing shaped plate of cartilage that sits anterior to the larynx and forms the adam's apple.
the system of bones and skeletal muscles that support and protect the body and permit movement.
the bones of the body
tissue that can contract to allow movement of a body part
tissue that connects bone to bone
tissue that connects muscle to bone
locating body organs and structures
1. visualizing or being able to picture, organs and structures inside the body as you look at the external body. 2. topography, or external landmarks, such as notches, joints, and bumps on bones.
bones, joints, muscles (skeleton supports and protects the body, forms blood cells and stores minerals. muscles provide movement). extends into all parts of the body.
musculoskeletal system functions
give the body shape, protect vital internal organs, provide for body movement.
interact with the musculoskeletal system
muscles, ligaments and tendons
nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, lungs (obtains oxygen and removes carbon dioxide from the body)
produces blood cells and stores certain nutrients
heart, arteries, veins (pumps blood throughout the entire body to transport nutrients, oxygen and wastes.
plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets (transports oxygen, protects against pathogens, and promotes clotting to control bleeding)
tonsils/adenoids, thymus gland, spleen, lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels (helps to maintain the fluid balance of the body and contributes to the body's immune system)
brain, spinal cord, nerves (receives sensory information and coordinates the body's response.
oral cavity, pharnyx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon), liver, gallbladder, pancreas (ingests, digests and absorbs nutrients for the body.
skin, hair, nails, sweat glands (forms protective barrier and aids in temperature regulation)
pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, thymus gland, adrenal glands, pancreas, testes, ovaries (regulates metabolic/hormonal activities of the body)
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra (filters waste products out of the blood and removes them from the body).
testes, epididymis, vas deferens, penis, seminal vesicles, prostate gland (produces sperm for reproduction).
ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, vulva, breasts (produces eggs for reproduction and provides place and nutrients for growing baby)
bony structure of the head, to enclose and protect the brain
front of skull
mandible, maxillae, nasal bones, orbits and zygomatic arches
the top, back and sides of skull
the lower jaw bone
the two fused bones forming the upper jaw
the nose bones
the bony structures around the eyes, the eye sockets
the bones that form the structure of the cheeks
the 33 bones of the spinal column
spinal column function
provides structure and support for the body and houses and protects the spinal cord
the chest, protects vital organs (heart, lungs and major blood vessels) by the 12 ribs connecting to the thoracic vertebrae
bones of the thorax form an internal space, contains heart, lungs and major blood vessels.
33 vertebrae in 5 divisions (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and coccyx)
frequent injuries in what part of spinal column
cervical and lumbar, not supported by anything else.
less frequent injuries in what part of spinal column
thoracic (connected to ribs), sacral and coccyx are supported by the pelvis.
the breastbone, 10 ribs are attached. 3 sections (manubrium, body and xiphoid process)
the superior portion of the sternum
the inferior portion of the sternum
the basin shaped bony structure that supports the spine and is the point of proximal attachment for the lower extremities.
pelvis (fused bone structure)
ilium, ischium and pubis
the superior and widest portion of the pelvis, contains iliac crest (wide bony wing that can be felt on waist)
the lower, posterior portions of the pelvis
the medial anterior portion of the pelvis
the pelvic socket into which the ball at the proximal end of the femur fits to form the hip joint.
neck 7 vertebrae
thorax, ribs, upper back 12 vertebrae
lower back 5 vertebrae
back wall of pelvis 5 vertebrae
tailbone 4 vertebrae
the large bone of the thigh, largest long bone of the body, slight bend at proximal end where it attaches to the pelvis
the kneecap, sits anterior to the knee joint
the medial and larger bone of the lower leg (shin)
connects with femur superiorly and with the bones of the lower leg inferiorly
the lateral and smaller bone of the lower leg
protrusion on the side of the ankle, lateral and medial
lower end of the fibula
lower end of the tibia
the ankle bones
the foot bones
the heel bone
the toe bones and finger bones
clavicle, scapula and proximal humerus
the collarbone, located anteriorly
the shoulder blade, located posteriorly
on scapula, the highest portion of the shoulder
the joint where the acromion and the clavicle meet, frequent shoulder injury
the bone of the upper arm, between the shoulder and the elbow
upper arm and forearm
3 bones, radius, ulna, humerus
the lateral bone of the forearm, aligned with the thumb (where radial pulse is taken)
the medial bone of the forearm
the wrist bones
the hand bones
the point where two bones come together (ball and socket, hip) (hinge, elbow)
hinge joint where humerus and ulna meet connected by ligaments
protect the body, give it shape and allow for movement. 3 types: voluntary, involuntary and cardiac
voluntary muscle (skeletal muscle)
muscle that can be controlled consciously (walking)
involuntary muscle (smooth muscle)
muscle that responds automatically to brain signals but cannot be consciously controlled. (digest food) we have no direct control over these muscles.
specialized involuntary muscle found only in the heart, extremely sensitive to decreased oxygen supply. has it's own blood supply through the coronary artery system.
the ability of the heart to generate and conduct electrical impulses on it's own. the heartbeat is controlled by these electrical impulses.
respiratory system (pulmonary system)
the system of nose, mouth, throat, lungs, and muscles that bring oxygen into the body and expels carbon dioxide. (ventilation and oxygenation)
oropharynx, nasopharynx, epiglottis, larynx,
the area directly posterior to the mouth
the area directly posterior to the nose
the area directly posterior to the mouth and nose. it is made up of the oropharynx and the nasopharynx
a leaf shaped structure that prevents food and foreign matter from entering the trachea
the voice box
the ring shaped structure that forms the lower portion of the larynx.
the windpipe, the structure that connects the pharynx to the lungs, c-shaped rings of cartilage that carries air
the organs where exchange of atmospheric oxygen and waste carbon dioxide take place.
the two large sets of branches that come off the trachea (bifurcates-trachea split in 2) and enter the lungs. there are right and left bronchi
the microscopic sacs of the lungs where gas exchange with the bloodstream takes place
the muscular structure that divides the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity, a major muscle of respiraton
nasal cavity function
cleanses, warms and humidifies inhaled air
transports air to and from the lungs
site of gas exchange between air and blood
bronchial tubes function
air passageways inside the lungs
pharynx and larynx function
carries air to the trachea and produces sound
an active process in which the intercostal rib muscles and the diaphragm contract, expanding the size of the chest cavity and causing air to flow into the lungs (negative pressure). oxygen is moved into the bloodstream
a passive process in which the intercostal rib muscles and the diaphragm relax, causing the chest cavity to decrease in size and air to flow out of the lungs (positive pressure).
carbon dioxide is picked up by the blood and excreted through this.
bring circulating blood to outside of the alveoli
the process of moving gases between inhaled air and the pulmonary circulation of blood. air from alveoli moves into pulmonary capillary.
carried from lungs to heart to then circulate through body
the process of moving oxygen and carbon dioxide between circulating blood and the cells. oxygenated blood goes from heart to arteries to capillaries the deoxygenated blood is carried out of the capillaries and into the veins to return to heart and lungs to expel the carbon dioxide.
body's way of regulating pH
the two upper chambers of the heart. there is a right atrium (which receives unoxygenated blood returning from the body) and a left atrium (which receives oxygenated blood returning from the lungs.
cardiovascular system (circulatory system)
consists of heart, blood and blood vessels.
the two lower chambers of the heart. there is a right ventricle (which sends oxygen-poor blood to the lungs) and a left ventricle (which sends oxygen rich blood to the body).
venae cavae (right atrium)
the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava. Receives the blood from both superior and inferior and upon contraction sends it to the right ventricle.
receives blood from right atrium then contracts and pumps blood out to the lungs via the pulmonary artery. this blood is heavy in CO2 and while in the lungs it is excreted when person exhales
oxygen rich blood comes in through the lungs when contracts sends it to the left ventricle
receives oxygenated blood from left atrium when contracts send blood into aorta for distribution to entire body
a structure that opens and closes to permit the flow of a fluid in only one direction. between each atrium and ventricle, pulmonary artery and aorta also have one.
cardiac conduction system
a system of specialized muscle tissues that conducts electrical impulses that stimulate the heart to beat. (internal pace maker)
any blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart.
blood vessels that supply the muscle of the heart (myocardium). damaging of these results in chest pain.
the largest artery in the body, it transports blood from the left ventricle to begin systemic circulation. splits in two at navel to form iliac arteries
the vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs. only artery that carries oxygen poor blood.
the large neck arteries, one on each side of the neck, that carry blood from the heart to the heat. used in CPR. carries main supply of blood to the head.
the major artery supplying the legs.
artery of the upper arm, the side of the pulse checked during infant CPR and used for checking blood pressure
artery of the lower arm, the artery felt when taking the pulse at the thumb side of the wrist.
arteries branch levels
begin at aorta (large vessel) branch into smaller vessels then to arteriole and even smaller are capillaries
vein branch levels
begin at capillaries to venules to larger veins and then to pulmonary vein
posterior tibial artery
artery supplying the foot, behind the medial ankle.
dorsalis pedis artery
artery supplying the foot, lateral to the large tendon of the big toe.
the smallest kind of artery
a thin walled, microscopic blood vessel where the oxygen/carbon dioxide and nutrient/waste exchange with the body's cells takes place.
muscular organ about the size of your fist located in the center of the thoracic cavity. has 4 chambers (2 upper-atria) and (2 lower-ventricle)
the smallest kind of vein
any blood vessel returning blood to the heart
the vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart, only vein that carries oxygenated blood
the fluid portion of the blood. makes up more than half the volume of blood. carries red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
composition of the blood
plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets
red blood cells (RBCs, erythrocytes or red corpuscles)
components of the blood. they carry oxygen to and carbon dioxide away from the cells. primary function is to carry oxygen to the tissues.
white blood cells (WBCs, leukocytes or white corpuscles)
components of the blood. they produce substances that help the body fight infection. involved in destroying organisms and producing substances called antibodies.
used to transport gases (O2 and CO2) and can also serve as a reservoir for oxygen dissolved in the plasma. Also plays a role in fighting infection and the production of clotting factors. Regulate pH through chemicals transported in the blood (blood buffer).
components of the blood. membrane enclosed fragment of specialized cells. when these fragments are activated they release chemical clotting factors need to form blood clots.
the rhythmic beats caused as waves of blood move through and expand the arteries. formed when left ventricle contracts sending a pressure wave. It is felt by compressing artery over bone.
the radial, brachial, posterior tibial, and dorsalis pedis pulses, which can be felt at peripheral points of the body.
the carotid and femoral pulses, which can be felt in the central part of the body
the force blood exerts against the walls of the blood vessels. usually arterial blood pressure is measured. there are two parts, diastolic blood pressure and systolic blood pressure
systolic blood pressure
the pressure created in the arteries when the left ventricle contracts and forces flood out into circulation. reported first.
diastolic blood pressure
the pressure in the arteries when the left ventricle is refilling. reported second.
inadequate circulation of blood through one or more organs or structures. a life-threatening condition. no oxygen getting into capillaries and no waste products being removed.
the movement of blood through the heart and blood vessels.
the supply of oxygen and nutrients to and removal of wastes from the cells and tissues of the body as a result of the flow of blood through the capillaries.
life support chain
the respiratory system and the cardiovascular system together make up the cardiopulmonary system. the interaction of these two systems is essential to life.
the system composed of organs, tissues, and vessels that help to maintain the fluid balance of the body and contribute to the body's immune system. one function is to capture fluid (called lymph) that escapes from cells and tissues and return it to the bloodstream.
adenoids, tonsils, spleen and thymus.
the system of brain, spinal cord, and nerves that govern sensation, movement and thought. controls the body's voluntary and voluntary activity. 2 divisions (central and peripheral)
central nervous system (CNS)
the brain and spinal cord, key function is consciousness.
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
the nerves that enter and leave the spinal cord and travel between the brain and organs without passing through the spinal cord. 2 types (sensory and motor) sensory pick up info from the body and transmit to the spinal cord and brain, touch something hot, let go. motor carries messages from the brain to body, don't touch that it's hot.
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary motor functions and affects such things as digestion and heart rate. 2 parts (sympathetic and parasympathetic)
sympathetic nervous system
ofter referred to as fight or flight response, system is engaged when the body is in crisis. heart to beat faster and lungs to breath deeper.
parasympathetic nervous system
is engaged in times of relaxation and often referred to as feed or breed response. causes increased blood flow to the digestive tract and to the reproductive organs. heart to slow and blood vessels to dilate.
glucose is converted by the cells into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), oxygen is a necessary component in this process. when oxygen is present glucose is converted. This process produces efficient amounts of energy and minimal waste.
glucose is converted by the cells into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), oxygen is a necessary component in this process. when oxygen is not present it produces less energy and more waste products, such as lactic acid.
cleanses blood and removes old red blood cells.
protects against pathogens in the pharynx
transports lymph fluid
cleanses lymph fluid
necessary for development of immune system.
happens when anaerobic metabolism takes place. injures the body's cells and limits the bloods ability to carry oxygen.
if air doesn't reach the alveoli (blocked airway)
gas exchange cannot occur in capillaries, ventilation perfusion match (V/Q match)
if heart is not pumping properly
if pump fails, blood will not move. anemia.
system by which food travels through the body and is digested or broken down into absorbable forms. broken down by saliva and chewing.
digestive system components
consists of stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen and appendix (all abdominal cavity) except for mouth and esophagus.
muscular sac between the esophagus and the small intestine where digestion of food begins. acidic gastric juices begin to break down food into components that the body will be able to convert into energy.
the muscular tube between the stomach and the large intestine, divided into the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum, which receives partially digested food from the stomach and continues digestion. nutrients are absorbed by the body through its walls.
the muscular tube that removes water from waste products received from the small intestine and moves anything not absorbed by the body toward excretion from the body (feces).
the largest organ of the body, which produces bile to assist in breakdown of fats and assists in the metabolism of various substances in the body. also detoxifies harmful substances, storing sugar and assisting in production of blood products.
a sac on the underside of the liver that stores bile produced by the liver.
a gland located behind the stomach that produces insulin and juices that assist in digestion of food in the duodenum of the small intestine. breaks down proteins, carbs and fats. key organ in endocrine system.
lymphatic system components
thymus, lymph nodes, lymphatic vessel, spleen, tonsils
essential component of endocrine system. they secrete epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine. These chemicals server as neurotransmitters and engage the sympathetic nervous system. fight or flight - norepinephrine is released.
an organ located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen that acts as a blood filtration system and a reservoir for reserves of blood.
a small tube located near the junction of the small and large intestines in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen, the function of which is not well understood. it's inflammation, called appendicitis, is a common cause of abdominal pain.
the layer of tissue between the body and the external environment.
the outer layer of skin, composed of 4 layers (strata) everywhere except palm of hands and soles of feet (those two have 5). contains no blood vessels.
the inner, second, layer of skin, rich in blood vessels, nerves, and specialized structures such as sweat glands and sebaceous glands and hair folicles. found beneath the epidermis. specialized nerve endings involved with sense of touch and reactions to cold, heat and pain. once dermis is opened contamination and infection become major problems.
the layers of fat and soft tissues found below the dermis. shock absorption and insulation are major functions of this layer.
system of glands that produce chemicals called hormones that help to regulate many body activities and functions.
skin. protection, water balance, temperature regulation (blood vessels dilte), excretion (excess water & salt), shock absorption (layers of fat protect the organs from minor impact).
epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous.
digestive system parts
stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen and appendix.
a hormone produced by the pancreas or taken as a medication by many diabetics.
a hormone produced by the body. as a medication it dilates respiratory passages and is used to relieve severe allergic reaction.
renal system (urinary system)
the body system that regulates fluid balance and the filtration of blood, helps balance pH. average adult excretes roughly a liter and a half of urine per day.
organs of the renal system used to filter blood and regulate fluid levels in the body. principal organ of the renal system. help filter a waste product called urea from the blood and provide fluid balance by regulating the uptake of sodium and the excretion of urine. also a buffer system with the production of biocarbonate for the blood.
an essential substance used to help regulate acidity of pH in the body.
the round saclike organ of the renal system used as a reservoir for urine.
the tubes connecting the kidneys to the bladder
tube connecting the bladder to the vagina or penis for excretion of urine.
the body system that is responsible for human reproduction
the male organs of reproduction used for the production of sperm
the organ of male reproduction responsible for the sexual intercourse and the transfer of sperm.
egg producing organs within the female reproductive system.
female organ of reproduction used to house the developing fetus.
the female organ of reproduction used for both sexual intercourse and as an exit from the uterus for the fetus.
transports ovum to uterus
produces ova and secretes estrogen and progesterone
protects vaginal orifice and urinary meatus
secretes fluid for semen
secretes fluid for semen
secretes fluid for semen.