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Terms in this set (42)
What are the two main groups of the digestive system?
Accessory Digestive Organs
What is the main purpose of the Alimentary Canal?
Digest foods - (breaks into smaller fragments)
Absorb food - (through lining into the blood)
What is the main purpose of the Accessory Digestive Organs?
Consists of your teeth, tongue, and several digestive glands
They assist in the process of digestive breakdown
What is another name for your Alimentary Canal?
What does the GI tract organs consist of?
Mouth, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, Large Intestine
What organs are considered as an accessory for your digestive tract?
Pancreas, Liver, Bile, Gallbladder, Salivary Glands
What role does your mouth play in the digestive system tract?
Food enters through your mouth... Mechanical breakdown of food
What role does your Pharynx play in the digestive system?
Food passes through your pharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx (common passageways for food, fluids, and air)
The walls contain two skeletal muscle layers (they alternate contractions)
-Propelling the food through the pharynx into the esophagus below
What role does your Esophagus play in the digestive system?
Also considered your gullet
Runs from the pharynx through the diaphragm to the stomach
(10 inches long) - essentially a passageway that conducts food to the stomach
What are the four basic tissue layers of the Esophagus?
1) Mucosa - innermost layer, a moist membrane that lines the cavity
2) Submucosa - just beneath the mucosa (blood vessels, nerve endings - connective tissue layer)
3) Muscularis Externa - muscle layer
4) Serosa - outermost layer of the wall (single layer of serous fluid-producing cells)
What is the main role for the Stomach in the digestive system?
Secretes gastric juices based off of sight, smell, and taste of food
Gastrin - prods stomach glands to produce digestive enzymes (2 - 3 liters of gj a day)
C-shaped stomach on the left of abdominal cavity, hidden by the liver
What is Heart Burn/Acid Reflux?
Cardioesophagel sphincter fails to close tightly and gastric juice backs up into esophagus
What is the cardiac region?
Surrounds the cardioesophagel sphincter, where food enters the stomach from the esophagus
What is the Fundus part of the stomach?
expanded part of the stomach lateral to the cardiac region
What is the body of the stomach?
mid-portion and funnel-shaped pylorus (terminal part of stomach)
Pylorus is continuous with the small intestine through the pyloric sphincter
How big and what is the volume capacity of the stomach?
10 inches long
Diameter depends on how much food it contains
When full can hold about 4 liters of food
What is rugae?
When the stomach is empty is collapses inward on itself and its mucosa is thrown into large folds
What type of break down begins in the stomach?
Chemical breakdown of proteins begin
The stomach also produces the solution called gastric juice that also aids in protein-digesting
Where does most of the digestive activity occur?
In the pyloric region of the stomach
What happens after the food has been processed in the stomach?
It resembles heavy cream and is called chyme
Where does the chyme enter the small intestine through?
What is the main role of the Small Intestine?
It is the body's major organ in the digestive tract
Usable food is finally prepared to be entered into the cells of the body
Longest section of the alimentary tube (2 - 4 meters)
How long does food stay in the small intestine for?
3 - 6 hours
What are the three subdivisions of the small intestine?
1) Duodenum - 25 cm
2) Jejunum - 2.5 meters
3) Ileum - 3.6 meters
What completes the chemical breakdown of foods in the small intestine?
Enzymes that are produced by the intestinal cells by the pancreas
What do the pancreatic juices do?
1) complete the digestion of starch
2) carry out 1/2 protein digestion
3) totally responsible for fat
4) digests nucleic acids
rich supply of bicarbonate - neutralizes acidic chyme from stomach
Acts like a detergent to emulsify or mechanically break down large fat globules
Yellow to green watery solution
tiny projections of the plasma membrane of the mucosa cells that give the cell surface a fuzzy appearance
finger-like projections of the mucosa that give it a velvety appearance and feel
What is the main role of the Large Intestine?
Dry out the indigestible food residue by absorbing water
Larger in diameter, but shorter (15 ft long)
What is the first part of the large intestine?
What hangs from the cecum?
What is the longest portion of the large intestine? (3 regions)
The Colon is the longest portion:
1) Ascending Colon - travels up the right side of the abdominal cavity
2) Transverse Colon - travels across the abdominal cavity
3) Descending Colon - drops down the left side of the abdominal cavity to the pelvis
The external opening leading from the body
What eases the passageway of feces to the end of the digestive tract?
Goblet cells in its mucosa that produce mucus
What is the major role of the pancreas?
Soft, pink, triangular gland that extends across the abdomen
Produces enzymes that break down all categories of digestible foods
Largest gland in the human body
Most important organ
Regulates metabolic roles and produces bile
Small, thin-walled green sac
Bile is concentrated by the removal of water in the gallbladder
What happens if the gallbladder is removed?
Your body can't break down fats
What are the functions of the digestive system?
1) Ingestion - eating and chewing food
2) Propulsion - foods must be propelled from one organ to the next
3) Mechanical Digestion - mixing of food in the mouth, churning food in stomach
4) Chemical Digestion - large food molecules are broken down into their building blocks by enzymes
What are the building blocks?
Carbs - (glucose, fructose, and galactose)
Disaccharides - 2 simple sugar (table sugar, milk sugar, and malt sugar)
Proteins - break down into amino acids
Lipids - fats (absorption - transports digested end product from the GI tract / Defecation - elimination of indigestible residues from the GI tract with the anus as feces
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