Personality Psych 4

Terms in this set (61)

Learning: the change of behavior as a function of experience. Stimuli that occur close together in time will come to elicit the same response. Behaviors followed by pleasant outcomes are more likely to be repeated. Behaviors followed by unpleasant outcomes are less likely to be repeated. Explain personality in terms of learning principles.
Thinking about how our behaviors, what we do, is altered and changed based on experiences in life. When things happen close together we link them. If you do a certain behavior and followed by pleasant outcomes more likely to keep doing it ex: go to work get paid so keep going to work. And vice versa ex: put hand on stove hurt so don't do it again. Behaviorism has taught us how to behave and influences our personality. Learned over time to be that way

Behaviorism: study of how a person's behavior is a direct result of his/her environment, particularly the rewards and punishments in the environment. Belief that the causes of behavior can be directly observed because they are in the environment - rewards and punishments in the social world.

Functional analysis: the goal of behaviorism is to determine how behavior is a function of one's environment - situationism.

Rewards and punishments teach us lessons on how to behave. Be able to look and observe what's doing stuff to you. What is teaching you this. Study things from the outside.

Functional analysis is a goal of behaviorism. Person situationism debate. Situations is molding you, environment is rewarding or punishing you. Situation more powerful than just who you are.
Empiricism is the foundation of behaviorism
Behiviorists believe that all knowledge worth having comes from direct, public observation. Private introspection, of the sort practiced by Wundt, is invalid because nobody can verify it. Attempting to tap other people's thoughts, via psychoanalysis for example, is similarly suspect. The whole idea of theorizing about something we can't see - any entity within the mind - is a dubious business at best. The only valid way to know about somebody is to watch what he does - the person's behavior.
This theory assumes that behavioral decisions are
determined not just by the presence or size of reinforcements, but also by beliefs
about the likely results of behavior


Emphasis on decision making and expectations. Rotter's social learning theory
Decisions are determined by the presence or size of reinforcements and beliefs about the likely results of behavior. Even if a reinforcement is very attractive, you are not likely to pursue it if your chances of success seem slim. Even something that is not particularly desirable might motivate behavior, if the chances of getting it are high. There's other things influencing whether we do things or not more than just rewards.
How big is what I'm going to get from doing this, is it worth it, will I be able to do it?
Believe we can get this thing changes if we are going to do it or not.
Assumes that behavioral decisions are determined not just by the presence or size of reinforcements, but also by beliefs about likely results.
Expectancy (for behavior): belief about how likely it seems that the behavior will attain its goal. Can be right or wrong, the belief is what causes action or inaction, different from classical behaviorism, in which the actual reward is what is important.
Specific expectancy: belief that a certain behavior, at a certain time and place, will lead to a specific outcome.
General expectancies: general beliefs about whether anything you do is likely to make a difference.
We all have expectancies. Not always in touch with reality, some people think they are going to get everything and they don't, some think they will never get anything but they do. Believe we will, will influence our reality sometimes. Our belief drives us sometimes.
Specific expectancy: when you were younger and wanted to ask parents for money, strategy for asking them
General: just in general you believe this will always happen no matter what. Little control.
Motivation: Goals - being aware of long-term goals can help a person make better decisions and organize short-term goals. We must constantly shift between them. Short-term goals are needed to achieve long-term goals. Being aware of connections between them gives life meaning and purpose.

Idiographic goals: goals that are unique to the individuals who pursue them (aimed at fairly specific outcomes and can change over time). Current concerns (an ongoing motivation that persists in the mind until the goal is either attained or abandoned. Ex; visiting a friend, keeping a dental appointment, losing weight, saving money, and finding a job. At any given moment, you can list around half a dozen current concerns that frequently come to mind. The more a current concern is valued, committed to, and under threat, the more frequently a person thinks about it), personal projects (are what people do. Made up of the efforts people put into such goals as "going to the prom," "finding a part-time job," "shopping for the holidays") and personal strivings (long-term goals that can organize broad areas of a person's life. Can provide useful insights into what he/she is like). Need both long-term and short-term goals. Having long-term goals helps make short-term goals. And short-term goals are needed to reach long-term goals.
Idiographic: aimed at things we know we want, change often because we accomplish them quickly.
Nomothetic goals: universal or essential motivations that almost everyone pursues. Research on goals:
(3 Goals) McClelland's three primary motivations: needs for achievement, affiliation, and power
(5 Goals) Emmon's five: enjoyment, self-assertion, esteem, interpersonal success, avoidance of negative affect.
(2 Goals) Kaiser & Ozer found two: work and social interaction.
Nomothetic: bigger goals. Something most people want. Succeed in life, have family, be happy in life.
Are there a certain number of key goals that people have in common?
Some found 3 goals, another 5, and 2. Some overlap
Goal circumplex. 2 dimensions. Extrinsic-outside world vs. intrinsic-what you think of yourself, things from within. About you or others
Self-transcendence-help others vs. physical self-this is about me
Judgment goals and development goals: judgment refers to seeking to judge or validate an attribute in oneself. Development goal is the desire to actually improve oneself, to become smarter, more beautiful, or more popular.
Entity and Incremental theories: entity - believe that personal qualities such as intelligence and ability are unchangeable, leading them to respond helplessly to any indication that they do not have what it takes. Incremental - believing that intelligence and ability can change with time and experience.
People can do things without knowing why, know things without knowing that they know, and have thoughts and feelings they do not understand. The unconscious is important, we can do many things without thinking about them (digestion, pupil dilation or contraction).

Consciousness is very small and life is more complicated than that.

Do without knowing, people do things or want things without knowing why. Running in background. Freud thought this was important. Do things without thinking about it-that's the unconscious thought: breathing, blinking. Happen naturally. Research: people shown object very briefly before consciously aware, then shown a bunch of pictures and said pick one of these and pic the thing they saw before without knowing they saw it. Mind was primed.
Dual-process models: two systems that can work at the same time.
Conscious thought is reflective (slowly and largely rational)
Unconscious thought is impulsive (fast, almost automatic, and sometimes irrational). Similar to idea of primary/secondary process thinking and rational/irrational thought.
Two ways of thinking important. Conscious and unconscious processing. Sometimes they do cross. Conscious is slow, reflective, rational thought, connected to the ego, frontal lobe thought process. Unconscious thought with the id, fast, automatic, sometimes irrational thought. Connects with Freud's idea of primary/secondary process thinking. Ties into CEST: example of dual process, one side rational and other experiential. Thinking differently and come to conclusion somehow.
Goals: the end result that one desires. Goals drive behavior by influencing what you attend to, think about, and do.
Emotion is a type of procedural knowledge. Knowledge that cannot be learned or fully expressed through words, but only through action and experience. An emotion is a set of mental and physical procedures, how the body and mind respond is part of the emotion.
Basic stages: appraisal, physical responses, facial expressions, nonverbal behavior, motives. Stages can happen at the same time or in a different order. Complex mixture of thought, physical sensations and motivations. Possible sources: immediate stimuli, classical conditioning, memories, and thoughts.
Stages we go through. First appraise, noticing something has emotional value. Physical response could be cry, facial expressions. Non verbal behavior: jumping. Motives: happen afterwards.
Sometimes happen in other orders. Sometimes emotion first before know what's happening. Hard to know what comes first. Could be from environment, hear a bell that associates with something bad, or memories that flash into your head, or thoughts have to yourself.
Core emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust. Some emotions may be universal because they were evolutionarily advantageous. It may be advantageous to be able to perceive these emotions accurately in others. Emotions that every culture has. Maybe evolutionary advantage, babies can make these faces before being able to actually say anything. Good for a survival technique.

Circumplex - Another way to represent goals is in terms of their
arrangement around a circle
Self-regulation: ability to restrain impulses and keep focused on long-term goals (and maintain self-image)
Information processing filter: helps us focus on, remember, and organize the information that matters to us
Help us understand others: helps with empathy, by imagining how we would feel
Identity: reminds us where we fit in our relations with others
position in the family and community.
Why do we have this self? 4 Important jobs
Regulation: if we have a self, know impulses, keep focused, help maintain self-image, who we want to be seen as
Information processing: filter out information, pay attention to what pertains to us
Understand: need to empathize with others. Put ourselves in their shoes
Identity: who we are and where we fit in society.
Self knowledge: Declarative and procedural knowledge.
Some theorists think each person has many declarative and procedural selves.
The active self: depends on where you are and who you are with.
Working self-concept: the view that the self is continuously changing.
Problems with this theory: a unitary and consistent sense of self is associated with mental health; which self decides which self to be? Where does one stop fractionating the self? Bunch of different types of selves. Active self constantly changing our ideas of who we are. Working on who we are. Good mental health if we have one sense of self. Some competing (un and con) which one should be in control? How are we supposed to think of ourselves as 1 person with these different parts.
Cluster A: odd/eccentric. Thinking is strange, eccentric, or delusional.
An extreme pattern of odd beliefs and behaviors, and of difficulties relating to others.
1) ideas of reference. Seeing irrelevant info or events and think it's about you. News on tv is a message to you
2) Magical thinking, bizarre fantasies, believing in odd phenomenon. Abilities to sense things.
3) Strange perceptual experiences. Bodily illusions, phantom pains, phantom illusions
4) Odd speech or thinking. Explain things to you and doesn't make sense, bizarre processing
5) Suspiciousness or paranoia. Think people are out to get them, government put tracking on them.
6) Inappropriate or flattened emotions. May laugh at inappropriate times. Something is really depressing, or joyful and you don't see that in them
7) Odd, peculiar, or eccentric actions or appearance. Might have foil on head, dress in weir ways.
8) Failure to develop friendships and a lack of social ties other than to one's immediate family. Don't have friends outside of immediate family, trouble interacting with others.
9) Anxiety being around other people that does not go away. Even if they have been going or working somewhere for years, still feel uncomfortable
Schizotypal, not just that they have odd beliefs, more extreme odd beliefs and lots of them. Odd behaviors. Have to have 5/9. if only 4/9 have schizotypal features. Won't notice their detachment. Still able to function. Make others uncomfortable. 3% population, more common in men than women. Consistent, relentless. Schizophrenia loses touch highly then becomes grounded, this person has just never been normal.
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