Motivation: what a person wants and why they want it. Drive: a state of psychological tension that feels good when reduced
-primary drive: a drive that is innate to an organism; food, water, physical comfort, avoidance of physical pain, sexual gratification, etc.
-Secondary drive: positive drives for love, prestige, money, and power, as well as negative drives such as the avoidance of fear and of humiliation.
Drive reduction theory:for a reward to have the power to encourage the target behavior, the reward must satisfy a need. (Implies that goal of all behavior is to satisfy every desire, which results on no motivation
This theory assumes that behavioral decisions are
determined not just by the presence or size of reinforcements, but also by beliefs
about the likely results of behavior
Emphasis on decision making and expectations. Rotter's social learning theory
Decisions are determined by the presence or size of reinforcements and beliefs about the likely results of behavior. Even if a reinforcement is very attractive, you are not likely to pursue it if your chances of success seem slim. Even something that is not particularly desirable might motivate behavior, if the chances of getting it are high. There's other things influencing whether we do things or not more than just rewards.
How big is what I'm going to get from doing this, is it worth it, will I be able to do it?
Believe we can get this thing changes if we are going to do it or not.
Assumes that behavioral decisions are determined not just by the presence or size of reinforcements, but also by beliefs about likely results.
Expectancy (for behavior): belief about how likely it seems that the behavior will attain its goal. Can be right or wrong, the belief is what causes action or inaction, different from classical behaviorism, in which the actual reward is what is important.
Specific expectancy: belief that a certain behavior, at a certain time and place, will lead to a specific outcome.
General expectancies: general beliefs about whether anything you do is likely to make a difference.
We all have expectancies. Not always in touch with reality, some people think they are going to get everything and they don't, some think they will never get anything but they do. Believe we will, will influence our reality sometimes. Our belief drives us sometimes.
Specific expectancy: when you were younger and wanted to ask parents for money, strategy for asking them
General: just in general you believe this will always happen no matter what. Little control.
pieces of information that can be thought of as a unit. What a chunk is can vary with learning and experience. Experts use larger chunks. Chunking can work with ideas, too. If you know what "water pressure" is, or "existential philosophy," or even "short-term memory," these complex ideas can constitute single chunks. This is important, because the limit to STM implies that you can only think about seven things at a time, so all new ideas you have must come from the interaction of no more than seven things. Chunk psychology into different sections: personality, clinical, abnormal, social, child, older, perspectives. Useful, help us learn more. Motivation: Goals - being aware of long-term goals can help a person make better decisions and organize short-term goals. We must constantly shift between them. Short-term goals are needed to achieve long-term goals. Being aware of connections between them gives life meaning and purpose.
Idiographic goals: goals that are unique to the individuals who pursue them (aimed at fairly specific outcomes and can change over time). Current concerns (an ongoing motivation that persists in the mind until the goal is either attained or abandoned. Ex; visiting a friend, keeping a dental appointment, losing weight, saving money, and finding a job. At any given moment, you can list around half a dozen current concerns that frequently come to mind. The more a current concern is valued, committed to, and under threat, the more frequently a person thinks about it), personal projects (are what people do. Made up of the efforts people put into such goals as "going to the prom," "finding a part-time job," "shopping for the holidays") and personal strivings (long-term goals that can organize broad areas of a person's life. Can provide useful insights into what he/she is like). Need both long-term and short-term goals. Having long-term goals helps make short-term goals. And short-term goals are needed to reach long-term goals.
Idiographic: aimed at things we know we want, change often because we accomplish them quickly.
Nomothetic goals: universal or essential motivations that almost everyone pursues. Research on goals:
(3 Goals) McClelland's three primary motivations: needs for achievement, affiliation, and power
(5 Goals) Emmon's five: enjoyment, self-assertion, esteem, interpersonal success, avoidance of negative affect.
(2 Goals) Kaiser & Ozer found two: work and social interaction.
Nomothetic: bigger goals. Something most people want. Succeed in life, have family, be happy in life.
Are there a certain number of key goals that people have in common?
Some found 3 goals, another 5, and 2. Some overlap
Goal circumplex. 2 dimensions. Extrinsic-outside world vs. intrinsic-what you think of yourself, things from within. About you or others
Self-transcendence-help others vs. physical self-this is about me
Judgment goals and development goals: judgment refers to seeking to judge or validate an attribute in oneself. Development goal is the desire to actually improve oneself, to become smarter, more beautiful, or more popular.
Entity and Incremental theories: entity - believe that personal qualities such as intelligence and ability are unchangeable, leading them to respond helplessly to any indication that they do not have what it takes. Incremental - believing that intelligence and ability can change with time and experience.
People can do things without knowing why, know things without knowing that they know, and have thoughts and feelings they do not understand. The unconscious is important, we can do many things without thinking about them (digestion, pupil dilation or contraction).
Consciousness is very small and life is more complicated than that.
Do without knowing, people do things or want things without knowing why. Running in background. Freud thought this was important. Do things without thinking about it-that's the unconscious thought: breathing, blinking. Happen naturally. Research: people shown object very briefly before consciously aware, then shown a bunch of pictures and said pick one of these and pic the thing they saw before without knowing they saw it. Mind was primed.
Dual-process models: two systems that can work at the same time.
Conscious thought is reflective (slowly and largely rational)
Unconscious thought is impulsive (fast, almost automatic, and sometimes irrational). Similar to idea of primary/secondary process thinking and rational/irrational thought.
Two ways of thinking important. Conscious and unconscious processing. Sometimes they do cross. Conscious is slow, reflective, rational thought, connected to the ego, frontal lobe thought process. Unconscious thought with the id, fast, automatic, sometimes irrational thought. Connects with Freud's idea of primary/secondary process thinking. Ties into CEST: example of dual process, one side rational and other experiential. Thinking differently and come to conclusion somehow.
One side secondary: more conscious, analytic, slow, processing, rational, book smart
Experiential: street smart, wise, holistic, fast, automatic.
Need both to make good decisions. Some people lean more one way than the other. Another way to think about how our thoughts might influence our personality, how we process thoughts
Goals: the end result that one desires. Goals drive behavior by influencing what you attend to, think about, and do.
Emotion is a type of procedural knowledge. Knowledge that cannot be learned or fully expressed through words, but only through action and experience. An emotion is a set of mental and physical procedures, how the body and mind respond is part of the emotion.
Basic stages: appraisal, physical responses, facial expressions, nonverbal behavior, motives. Stages can happen at the same time or in a different order. Complex mixture of thought, physical sensations and motivations. Possible sources: immediate stimuli, classical conditioning, memories, and thoughts.
Stages we go through. First appraise, noticing something has emotional value. Physical response could be cry, facial expressions. Non verbal behavior: jumping. Motives: happen afterwards.
Sometimes happen in other orders. Sometimes emotion first before know what's happening. Hard to know what comes first. Could be from environment, hear a bell that associates with something bad, or memories that flash into your head, or thoughts have to yourself.
Core emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust. Some emotions may be universal because they were evolutionarily advantageous. It may be advantageous to be able to perceive these emotions accurately in others. Emotions that every culture has. Maybe evolutionary advantage, babies can make these faces before being able to actually say anything. Good for a survival technique.
Circumplex - Another way to represent goals is in terms of their
arrangement around a circle
Cluster A: odd/eccentric. Thinking is strange, eccentric, or delusional.
An extreme pattern of odd beliefs and behaviors, and of difficulties relating to others.
1) ideas of reference. Seeing irrelevant info or events and think it's about you. News on tv is a message to you
2) Magical thinking, bizarre fantasies, believing in odd phenomenon. Abilities to sense things.
3) Strange perceptual experiences. Bodily illusions, phantom pains, phantom illusions
4) Odd speech or thinking. Explain things to you and doesn't make sense, bizarre processing
5) Suspiciousness or paranoia. Think people are out to get them, government put tracking on them.
6) Inappropriate or flattened emotions. May laugh at inappropriate times. Something is really depressing, or joyful and you don't see that in them
7) Odd, peculiar, or eccentric actions or appearance. Might have foil on head, dress in weir ways.
8) Failure to develop friendships and a lack of social ties other than to one's immediate family. Don't have friends outside of immediate family, trouble interacting with others.
9) Anxiety being around other people that does not go away. Even if they have been going or working somewhere for years, still feel uncomfortable
Schizotypal, not just that they have odd beliefs, more extreme odd beliefs and lots of them. Odd behaviors. Have to have 5/9. if only 4/9 have schizotypal features. Won't notice their detachment. Still able to function. Make others uncomfortable. 3% population, more common in men than women. Consistent, relentless. Schizophrenia loses touch highly then becomes grounded, this person has just never been normal.
An extreme pattern of deceitful, manipulative, and sometimes dangerous behavior. Illegal activities - vandalism, theft, and drug dealing. Risky behaviors - reckless driving, drug abuse, and dangerous sexual practices. Irritable, aggressive, and irresponsible; problems caused to others does not bother them. Overlaps with narcissistic. Start off as kids with conduct disorder. Illegal activity in childhood and as adult. May be really good at not getting caught, or may be constantly in and out of jail. Don't care if others are in danger. This person is employee might not care if they show up late or show up drunk. Don't know something is wrong. Get into lots of fights, not pay loans or something government after them. Little remorse. Worst 20% are psychopaths. 3.5% population, some people more obvious. Highly dangerous.
An extreme and sometimes dangerous pattern of emotional instability, emotional emptiness, confused identity, and tendencies toward self-harm (most severe PD)
Rapid mood shifts; uncontrollable anger; self-destructive acts; self-damaging behaviors; identity disturbance; chronic emptiness; unstable relationships; fear of abandonment; confusion and feelings of unreality.
Possible origins. Treat for BPD: dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT). Trouble moderating emotion, do impulsive things and leads to more damage and harm. Feel like something isn't quite right, not a full person, sense of emptiness, something is missing from your life.
Origins - genetic risk factors paired with family and environment. Over time family just says they are overreacting. Individual amplifies things to get attention.
DBT - invented for this disorder. Come into therapy often because of turmoil with relationships. Spin off of CBT. Learn to control emotions. Lots of mood swings, upset emotions, empty, confused/identity shifts, might have lots of self-harm. Must have at least 5/9.
An extreme pattern of rigidly conscientiousness behavior, including an anxious and inflexible adherence to rules and rituals, perfectionism, and a stubborn resistance to change (not the same as obsessive compulsive disorder).
Over concern with rules and details; perfectionism; workaholism; inflexibility of thinking and behaving; packrat behavior; inability to delegate; miserliness; rigidity and stubbornness - somewhat ego-syntonic.
Have rigid personality, not very flexible. Stubborn, certain way doing things, their way is right and others is wrong, extreme perfectionism. Compulsions, more of a chronic and less acute disorder. They think this is normal. Might spend a long time doing something but don't get a lot done because they constantly try to perfect things. May follow rules to the point where they forget why they were there in the first place. Need to have 4 of these 8. they do the work for everyone in the group. 7) buy things that they need to buy but cheap about it.
Most common, 8% of population, equally prevalent in men and women. Resembles the anal character from Freud. Difficult to treat through psychotherapy, may be because its basis is biological.