Create an account
Functional Group: Hydroxyl (-OH)
Structure: Hydrogen atom bonded with Oxygen atom
Compound: Alcohols (name usually ends in -ol)
Example: Ethanol (the alcohol present in alcoholic beverages)
Functional Properties: 1) Is polar as a result of electrons spending more time near the electronegative oxygen atom 2) can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules, helping dissolve organic compounds such as sugars
Functional Group: Carbonyl (-C=O)
Structure: a carbon atom joined to an oxygen atom by a double bond
Compounds: 1) Ketones (if carbonyl group is within a carbon skeleton) 2) Aldehydes (if carbonyl group is at the end of the carbon skelton)
Example: Acetone (simplest ketone) Propanal (aldehyde)
Functional Properties: 1) ketones and aldehydes can be structural isomers with different properties 2) two major groups of sugar: ketoses and aldoses
Functional Group: Carboxyl (-COOH)
Structure: oxygen is double bonded to a carbon atom that is also bonded to an -OH group
Compounds: Carboxylic acids (aka organic acids)
Example: Acetic acid (gives vinegar its sour taste)
Functional Properties: 1) acts as an acid; can donate an H+ because the covalent bond between the O and H is so polar 2) Found in cells in the ionized form with a charge of 1- called a carboxylate ion
Functional Group: Amino (-NH2)
Structure: nitrogen atom bonded to 2 hydrogen atoms and to the carbon skeleton
Example: Glycine (a compound that is both amine and carboxylic acid; compounds with both groups are called amino acids)
Functional Properties: 1) acts as a base 2) Found in cells in the ionized form with a charge of 1+
Functional Group: Sulfhydryl (-SH)
Structure: sulfur atom bonded to an atom of hydrogen
Example: Cysteine (an important sulfur containing amino acid)
Functional Properties: 1) two sulfhydryl groups can react, forming a covalent bond. This "cross-linking" helps stabilize protein structure (tertiary structure) 2) cross-linking of cysteines in hair proteins maintains the curliness or straightness of hair. Straight hair can be "permanently" curled by shaping it around curlers and then breaking and re-forming the cross-linking bonds
Functional Group: Phosphate (PO4)
Structure: phosphorus atom is bonded to 4 oxygen atoms, one oxygen is bonded to the carbon skeleton, two oxygens carry a negative charge, and the fourth is double bonded to the phosphorus atom
Compounds: Organic phosphates
Example: Glycerol Phosphate (takes part in many chemical reaction in the cell, provides backbone for phospholipids, and the most prevalent molecules in cell membranes
Functional Properties: 1) contributes negative charge to the molecule of which it is a part 2) Molecules with phosphate groups have the potential to react with water, releasing energy
Functional Group: Methyl (-CH3)
Structure: a carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms, the carbon of a methyl group may be attached to a carbon or to a different atom
Compounds: Methylated compounds
Example: 5-methyl cytosine (a component of DNA that has been modified by addition of a methyl group
Functional Properties: 1) addition of a methyl group to DNA, or to molecules bound to DNA, affects expression of genes 2) arrangement of methyl groups in male and female sex hormones affects their shape and function
Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.
Having trouble? Click here for help.
We can’t access your microphone!
Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again
Reload the page to try again!Reload
Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom
Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom
It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.
Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.
For more help, see our troubleshooting page.
Your microphone is muted
For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.
Star this term
You can study starred terms together