Government Second Semester Final Flash Cards
Terms in this set (95)
Where is the only reference to gender found in the Constitution? _
The Scottish economist _
Employers with few women and minority workers should try to hire more describes the _ program the federal government began in 1965.
Which term describes the legal process by which a loss of citizenship occurs? _
Which kind of jurisdiction does a court exercise when it hears a case on appeal from a lower court? _
Which type of trial is heard by a judge alone? _
Which landmark Supreme Court case ruled that segregation by race in public education was unconstitutional? _
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
Which informal advisory body was not created by the Constitution or Congress, although its advisors are subject to Senate confirmation? _
A _ must provide a master plan for future growth to be eligible for Federal Government grants and loans.
Discrimination in programs that receive federal money is prohibited is a provision of the _ of 1964.
Civil Rights Act
Which legislation forbids anyone from refusing to sell or rent a dwelling to any person on the grounds of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, or disability, or to rent to a family with children? _
Civil Rights Act of 1968
Which independent executive government agency was created as a result of the need for reform and the assassination of President James Garfield? _
_ and deterrence are the two principles that have directed the foreign policy of the United States since World War II.
Which term describes the policy of several European monarchies seeking control of foreign lands beginning in the late 1400s and 1500s? _
In which type of economy do government bureaucrats plan for the development of the economy over a period of years? _
Who holds the decision-making power in a communist-run nation? _
What is the principle reason for the existence of a city? _
the size and number of _ in a State is a source of weakness in county organization.
Who collects property taxes in a county government structure? _
Which county government official would you contact for a copy of your birth record? _
Which courts conduct trials that serve the disciplinary needs of the armed forces? _
Democratization refers to a change from dictatorship to democracy, marked by free and fair elections. Which term defines the longer process for establishing the essentials of democracy? _
Which term describes the legal process by which a court order takes away a person's citizenship? _
Which term describes the United Kingdom's process of returning the delegation of authority from the central government back to the regional governments of Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland? _
_ spending is the term used to describe spending on those budget items about which Congress and the President can make choices
Which courts are the "courts of first instance" in the federal judiciary? _
What makes the United States a heterogeneous country? _
A person violates a federal law and a State law in a single act, _ not apply.
Which event caused the largest single instance of collective naturalization in the United States? _
Dred Scott case
What is the most expensive item in every State's budget? _
Which word describes the Spanish system of giving control of Indians to a settler for forced labor? _
In 1954, the Supreme Court overturned laws requiring different schools for white students and African American students. Separate schools can never be _ was the Court's reasoning in this case
Which term describes a tax that is levied without regard for race, religion, nationality, political party membership, or other unreasonable factors? _
Equal Protection Clause
Which of the following prevents evidence gained as the result of an illegal act by police from being used at the trial of the person from whom it was seized? _
_ provides for the refusal to disclose certain information to Congress or the federal courts.
What term do economists use to describe the basic resources used to make all goods and services? _
factors of production
The _ is a partner with the States in funding highways
Who is responsible for carrying out the government's monetary policy? _
Federal Reserve Board
The accused does not have to prove his or her innocence is the underlying principle behind the right of the accused to "take the _".
Which bureaucratic feature allows people to work on a complex task based on a set of known standards and with little interruption? _
In addition to the right of _, the right to hear what others have to say is a fundamental right in the 1st and 14th amendments.
A market in which buyers and sellers are free to buy and sell as they wish is known as a _
What did the people of Bosnia experience as a result of the weakening of Communist rule in Yugoslavia?
What dictated the division of ancient Greece into many small, independent city states? _
Who is the principal executive officer in each of the 50 States? _
The _ eliminated all elements of free enterprise; the Four Modernizations is moving China toward a market economy
Great Leap Forward
Which group is the largest minority group in the United States? _
The _ chooses the prime minister and the cabinet, therefore it si more powerful than the House of Lords.
House of Commons
cost of _ has most affected city growth since World War II
What produces the largest amount of federal revenue in the United States? _
individual income tax
Which English political theorist put forth the idea of the natural rights of all human beings, including the rights to life, liberty, and property? _
A rebuilt bicycle is worth a certain amount because it takes that much labor to produce it. _ believed the laborer who rebuilt the bicycle should receive the value in full
the right of every nation to send and receive diplomatic representatives is the right of _
What does the Supreme Court use to decide whether a State law amounts to an "establishment" of religion? _
only through an amendment to the Constitution can a President use a _.
Which type of city government was first formed when Galveston, Texas, was devastated by a hurricane? _
Legally and in the strictest sense, who may introduce a bill in either house in any State's legislature? _
member of the State legislature
The United Kingdom has a constitutional monarchy, and _ has a federal system.
In addition to the collapse of communist regimes in Eastern Europe and the election of Boris Yeltsin, who else contributed to the fall of the Soviet Union? _
The _ is subordinate to the elected civilian leadership is the relationship between the military and the federal government
As feudalism faded, the rise of _ fostered the development of centralized power and the establishment of national governments and legal systems
What term describes an urban political unit within a township that usually exists as a separate government entity? _
Which presidential tradition was broken by Franklin D. Roosevelt and resolved through passage of the 22nd Amendment? _
The _ is an agency of the Executive Office of the President?
Office of Management and Budget
a State's general trial court with _ jurisdiction is a court of "first instance"
the party's leadership determines the party _ to be adopted at the national conventions.
Which power gives States the authority to protect and promote the well-being of the people? _
Which State power is central to the protection and promotion of public health, public safety, public morals, and the general welfare? _
the rise of _ led to a change in the electoral college system following the election of 1800.
Why was there no large middle class in African and Asian countries to balance the interests of the vast numbers of poor and of the few elite, following the era of colonial control? _
_ and limited government are two principles are the foundation of every State's constitution?
the unity of the presidency has had the most influence on the growth of _ since 1789.
the _electoral college reform plan proposal would give a share of each State's electoral vote based on each candidate's share of the State's popular vote?
_ and ratification are the basic steps are central to the process for changing a State's constitution?
_ is the term that describes the result of this government borrowing
Which test is used most often to help the Supreme Court decide equal protection cases? _
rational basis test
Which term describes the voters' removal of an elected official from office before his or her term is over? _
Which of the following taxes is not levied according to a person's ability to pay? _
The _ commissions are largely beyond the reach of presidential direction and control.
Which right was named by the Supreme Court as part of the freedoms of assembly and petition? _
right of association
the collapse of organized government was a major consequence of the decline and fall of the _ Empire
Which tax is a regressive tax? _
Who must confirm a President's selection of every federal judge? _
Which term is used to describe businesses owned by a single individual? _
_ laws and/or party rules establishes the procedures for picking presidential election delegates in each State
Which court is the final authority on the meaning of the Constitution? _
The United States government puts high _ on a certain product that is imported from other countries. The product costs more in the U.S. that on the world market
to restrict the new National Government was the original intent of the first _ amendments to the Constitution
Which branch of the law regulates wrongful acts involving injury to one's person, property, or reputation in a situation not covered by the terms of a contract? _
There is no difference from a _ and county.
_ must be approved by the Senate; executive agreements do not
_ governments are considered sovereign nations.
The formal duties assigned to the _ by the Constitution are to preside over the Senate and help decide the question of presidential succession.
What is the name for any country that provides extensive social services at little or no direct cost to consumers? _
Which court order is directed to an officer holding a prisoner to show why the prisoner should not be released? _
writ of habeas corpus