Upgrade to remove ads
AP Human Geography - Key Geographic Models
Terms in this set (14)
Demographic Transition Model (DTM)
- Four stages of transition from an agricultural-subsistence economy to an industrialized country
- Moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates, with increasing levels of population
Epidemiological Transition Model
Patterns of common disease that follows stages of the DTM.
Stage 1: plague and pestilence
Stage 2: receding pandemics
Stage 3: Lifestyle/degenerative disease (heart disease, cancer, stroke, etc)
Stage 4: Delayed degenerative diseases (same as stage 3, but even later in life)
Gravity Model of Spatial Interaction
1. Larger places attract more migrants than smaller places
2. More distant places have a weaker pull than closer places of the same size
Migration Transition Model (Zelinsky Model)
Migration follows DTM stages.
Stage 1: Migration for food (hunter/gatherers)
Stage 2: Migration for economic opportunity (people try to move into industrialized stage 3 & 4 countries)
Stage 3 and 4: Less emigration and more internal migration (EX: moving from New York to LA for work)
Ravenstein's Laws of Migration
1. Most migration is over short distances
2. Longer distance migrants usually go to big cities
3. Economic opportunity is the primary cause of migration
4. Most migration is from rural to urban areas
Von Thunen's Model
Predicts agricultural land use based on transportation costs to a town/city.
- More intensive land use is closer to the city
- More extensive land use is farther away
Least Cost Theory (Weber's Model of Industrial Location)
Industry will chose its location based on a desire to minimize production and transportation costs. (Think of bulk-gaining vs. bulk-reducing industries and shipping costs to and from a factory)
Rostow's Stages of Economic Development
Claims all countries industrialize in a five stage process. Early growth of one industry leads to advancements in other types of industry which spreads throughout the entire economy. (EX: Ford's assembly line that revolutionized auto manufacturing has led to advancements in other types of manufacturing and even food production.)
Borchert's Model of Urban Evolution
Four stages of city growth based on transportation (not connected to DTM).
1. "Sail wagon" era - covered wagons moving West.
2. "Iron horse" era - steam engines
3. "steel rail" - Modern freight trains
4. Current era - car and air travel
Central Place Theory
Predicts patterns of urban places across space. Organized hierarchical pattern of cities, villages, towns and hamlets.
Concentric Zone Model
Predicts the growth of North American urban spaces. Cities can be viewed as a series of concentric rings. The CBD is in the middle and each ring going out has a unique characteristic of its land use.
Predicts and explains North American urban growth patterns based on socio-economic class. Each class would occupy an sector radiating outward from the CBD.
Explains the changing growth pattern of urban spaces. Says that growth occurs independently around several major foci (or nodes).
Latin American City Model (Used for much of the developing world)
Model to explain urban growth for cities in the developing world (think of primate cities). Show that residential quality decreases with distance from the CBD. Nicer areas are the "zone of maturity" where services and utilities are common. The outer areas are the periphery, where squatter settlements are prevalent and utilities, services and governance are lacking.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
AP Human Geography Population
Folk and Pop Culture
Countries of Europe
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
AP HUG Exam Review
AP Human Geography: Models and Theories
Cumulative Quiz: Models (ONLY EXPLANATIO…
AP Human Geography Models (No Pictures)
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
World history - Chapter 32 Conflicts Divide Nations
Chapter 12 - services and settlements
US States and Capitals