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Flash cards copied from study guide questions relating to chapters 14-17 of Western Civilizations, Volume 2, 17th Edition by Judith Coffin, et. al. HIST1600, Macomb Community College; Professor Akehurst; 2012

increasing population, fixed food supplies, and stagnant wages.

The economy of 16th century Europe was characterized by:

caught most Europeans completely unaware.

The troubles of the late 16th and early 17th centuries:


The primary problem caused by the Price Revolution of the late 16th century was:

the Price Revolution, an increase in poverty, the religious wars, and a rise in taxes (all of these).

The increase in the amount of silver flowing from the Americas to Europe in the 16th century is credited with causing or exacerbating:


More than one factor contributed to the Price Revolution of the late 16th century, but among those factors was:

Merchants and large farmers

Which groups in European society benefited most from the Price Revolution?

the ruler of each principality settled all matters of religion.

The 1555 Peace of Augsburg rested on the principle of "cuius regio, eius religio," which meant:

the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, whose goal was to re-establish Catholic unity within his realm.

The German religious wars may be attributed to:


Which of the following religious orientations did the Peace of Augsburg exclude?


Most French Protestants were:

the Protestant forces in the French Wars of Religion.

Aristocratic women were particularly important supporters of:

recognized Catholicism as the official religion of France.

The Edict of Nantes:


Which of the following religious orientations did the Peace of Augsburg exclude?


During the first half of the 16th century, northern Europe's leading commercial and financial center was:

catholic rule under the Spanish.

William of Orange ("William the Silent") fought during the religious wars to free the Netherlands from:


During the revolt of the Netherlands, the Protestant forces of William the Silent were based in the northern part of the country, where the majority of the population was:

used Spanish troops to rule the Netherlands under martial law.

During the revolt of the Netherlands, the Duke of Alva:

had Spain conquered England, Catholics would have made major inroads against the Protestants.

The English defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 was a decisive moment in Western history because:

a Catholic prince became the ruler of a Protestant territory.

The Thirty Years' War began when:


The Thirty Years' War created the greatest devastation in:

the emergence of France as the dominant power in Europe, eclipsing Spain.

From an international perspective, the Peace of Westphalia (1648) marked:

establishing colonies in the Americas.

Although Spain was the most powerful country in Europe during the 16th century, it sowed the seeds of its eventual decline by:

a decisive altering of the balance of power.

By 1660, Europe had undergone:

open up new silver mines within France.

To promote the economic development of France, Henry IV did all of the following EXCEPT:

to increase and centralize royal power over France.

The primary goal of Cardinal Richelieu's government was:

An aristocratic rebellion against the government of Cardinal Mazarin.

The Fronde was:

King James I.

The Stuart dynasty of English kings began with:

involving England in foreign wars without their consent.

King James I antagonized his parliaments by doing all of the following EXCEPT:

all of these.

The English Civil War was caused by:

encouraging Calvinist doctrine generally without modifying the English prayer book.

James I mediated the conflicts between Catholics and Protestants by:

launched a costly new war against Spain.

Charles I demonstrated his lack of political diplomacy when he:

An invasion force from Scotland.

What forced Charles I to summon a new parliament, after he had ruled without one for 11 years?

Charles' attempt to arrest five parliamentary leaders on the floor of the House of Commons.

The immediate provocation for the outbreak of civil war between king Charles and his parliament was:

the leader of the Parliamentary Army.

Oliver Cromwell rose to power in England as:

Because years of unpopular Calvinist prohibitions on public amusements had discredited Cromwell's Puritan regime.

In 1600, most English men and women welcomed the restoration of the monarchy. Why?

accepted all parliamentary legislation passed before the English Civil War.

As a rule, Charles II:

by state courts.

In 16th and 17th century Europe, most formal trials on charges of witchcraft were carried out:

a pervasive skepticism about all human knowledge.

The main theme of Montaigne's Essays was:

absolute governmental sovereignty.

Jean Bodin's Six Books of the Commonwealth was the first fully developed statement of:

Miguel DeCervantes.

A chivalric mentality had remained important for some segments of European society into the early modern period, but it's anachronistic nature was satirized by:

Christopher Marlowe.

In his own day, the most popular of the Elizabethan dramatists was:

Christopher Marlowe.

The Elizabethan author of Doctor Faustus was:

Ben Jonson.

The 16th century writer who portrayedf lower-class people in a very favorable light was:

John Milton

Many writers of the 16th and 17th centuries were as popular, or even more popular, during their lifetimes as William Shakespeare. Modern scholars consider only one of them, ______, to be his equal in artistic vision.


The architect of the Baroque noted for his Hellenistic-inspired style was:

Peter Breugel the Elder.

Naturalism has a place within Baroque art due to the work of:

The Maids of Honor.

Baroque painting is considered by many to have found its master in Diego Velazquez with such paintings as:

Rembrandt van Rijn

What Dutch painter was famous for his black and white etchings of New Testament scenes?


Peter Paul Rubens stressed the ________ of the Baroque style.

Religious war, political rebellions, economic crises, diminishing confidence in traditional authority (all of these).

Europe, between the mid 16th and mid 17th centuries, witnessed:


Sixteenth-century Europeans believed that the proper role of the state was to enforce true religion on its subjects and that religious pluralism would destroy any state that tried it.


The presence of Jesuits and Calvinists meant religious wars became more brutal.


William of Orange was knows as "William the Silent" because he often deferred public speaking to his wife, Mary.


Sir Francis Drake was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe in search of treasure.


Unlike Spain, which was able to feed itself, France had to import most of its food.


Henry IV declared there should be a chicken in every French family's pot each Sunday as part of his new campaign of prosperity.


The Petition of Right declared that all taxes not voted upon by Parliament to be the property of the Church to stop the revenues from benefiting the king.


During the English Civil War, the parliamentary forces consisted mainly of small landholders and artisans, while the nobility supported the king.


Roughly half of all of those accused of witchcraft were men.


According to Bodin, ensuring the livelihood of its people was the greatest duty of a state.


Shakespeare's The Tempest is representative of his third period of writing in which he displays a spirit of reconciliation and peace.


Mannerism refers to a 16th century style of art which was highly dramatic and emotionally compelling.


Baroque refers to a style of art that contains the dramatic and the irregular but avoided the bizarre nature of late Mannerism.


Brueghel, Rubens, and Rembrandt were very similar painters who explored the topics of man's wretchedness and greatness to the fullest.


Rembrandt gained fame initially as a painter of biblical scenes.

allowed rulers to govern by divine right and according to their own will.

In the 17th and 18th centuries, absolutism was a political theory that:


According to Chapter 15, which European government developed into an autocracy in the early modern period?

the 16th and early 17th centuries were times of great disorder in Europe.

Absolutist rulers such as Louis XIV sought control over the state because:


The most important opponents of royal absolutism were:

demonstrate the grandeur of his rule and to control the French nobility.

Louis XIV used the Palace of Versailles to:


According to the justification given for absolutism, the fundamental basis for order and justice in the world is:

highly centralized, with everyone being appointed by and reporting to the king.

The government of France under Louis XIV would be best described as:

imposed religious unity upon all French people.

In general, the religious policites of Louis XIV aimed to:

Jean-Baptiste Colbert.

The Royal Finance Minister who increased revenues in France during the reign of Louis XIV was:

were an enormous drain on the Treasury of France.

The wars of Louis XIV:


According to the French finance minister, Colbert, one underlying principle of mercantilism is:

a republic.

The governmental system used by the United Provinces in the Netherlands throughout the 17th century was:

began modeling his kingship on the absolutism of Louis XIV.

In England, Charles II triggered a crisis not unlike that produced by his father's rule when he:


Alhough most European countries have had representative assemblies, the longest surviving assembly is in:

and his second wife, Mary of Modena, had a son, a Catholic heir to the throne.

James II of England angered his critics and set off a national crisis when he:

it established England, without bloodshed, as a mixed monarchy governed by "the King in Parliament."

The English call the 1688-89 transfer of power to William and Mary the "Glorious Revolution" because:

legitimate government authority is conditional and contractual.

In his Two Treatises of Government, John Locke argued that:

Charles II

The War of the Spanish Succession was fought when the Spanish king, ______, died without an heir.

giving Great Britain trading rights and desirable French territory in the New World.

The Treaty of Utrecht (1713) altered the balance of power in Europe by:

the Ottoman Empire.

The balance of power in central and eastern Europe was reshaped at the end of the 17th and beginning of the 18th centuries because of the loss of power of:

became "enlightened," but was still limited by weaknesses within the empire.

Under Maria Theresa and her son, Habsburg, absolutism:

All of these: Created a system of public elementary education, relaxed censorship, created a standing professional army, and increased their control of the church.

As an "enlightened" absolutist monarchy, the Habsburgs of Austria:

exerting prudent financial leadership and building a large army.

Frederick William I made Prussia strong by:

invading Silesia and Poland, and carefully consolidating his gains.

Frederick the Great, of Prussia, made Prussia a major European power by:

the introduction of western ideas and customs.

In general, the policies of Peter the Great of Russia included:

Stenka Razin.

The great peasant uprising of the 17th century was lead by:

secure year-round ports for Russia.

The goal of Peter the Great's foreign policy was to:


The balance of power in eastern Europe was realigned in 1721 with the Peace of:

peasants revoled in 1773-75 and threatened Moscow.

Catherine the Great's interest in codifying and liberalizing Russian law was essentially abandoned when:

Frederick the Great.

Poland lost 30% of its territory and 50% of its population as a result of an agreement brokered bewteen Prussia, Austria, and Russia by:

Maize and potatoes

In the 18th century, Europe's traditional food supply was augmented by which new products from the Americas?


By the late 18th century, the population of Naples, Italy, had reached nearly:


An important technical innovation in early modern Holland was a machine called the _____, by which the hulls of ships could be raised in the water for repair.

the law of supply and demand.

The consumerism of the 18th century grew to allow more people to buy goods that had been luxuries only a short time before; however, one result of this situation was a rise in the cost of such goods caused by:

the principles of mercantilist theory.

The economic nature of the Spanish colonies in the 16th and 17th centuries reflected:


In the French colonial system, the greatest profits came from:

the uprooting and resettlement of large numbers of native people.

Social relations in the Spanish colonies of Central and South America were characterized by all of the following EXCEPT:

their Asian, African, and American colonies.

European wealth and prosperity in the 17th and 18th centuries may be attributed at least in part to:

quite a bit of piracy, as English sailors seized Spanish cargo Ships for the plunder.

When England began to break into international colonial trade, its efforts were marked by:

slave labor.

The cultivation of New World sugar and tobacco depended on:

they showed little interest in converting Native merican peoples to Christianity.

Although the Puritans left England to escape the government's attempt to impose religious conformity:

wildly profitable, they encouraged its consumption.

European governments at first jointed the church in condemning the use of tobacco, but when it became:

Southeast Asia.

The most valuable Dutch colonies during the 17th century were in:


Approximately how many Africans were transported across the Atlantic Ocean during the 18th century to be sold as slaves?

trade the slaves for molasses in Jamaica.

On a typical merchant run along the "triangle trade" route, a British ship would sail from New England with rum, trade the rum for slaves in Africa, and then:


Of all the slaves brought to the western hemisphere from Africa, approximately _____ percent came to North America.

French and the English.

The Portugese and the Spanish had begun modern European colonization, but by the mid 18th century the European leaders were the:

The Seven Years' war.

One of the important causes of the American Revolution was Britain's success in:

The Dutch Republic

In 1780, Britain declared war on _____ for continuing to trade with the colonies during the American Revolution.

the final military conflict in a century-long struggle between Great Britain and France.

In the context of early modern European history, the American War of Independence was:


In the late 17th century, European wars almost always had a colonial aspect.


The absolute monarchs ruled only with the consent of their nobles and people.


"Whigs" was a nickname for the supporters of King Charles II.


Habeas corpus is a guarantee that no one can be imprisoned unless charged with a crime.


The League of Augsburg united Holland, England, Spain, Sweden, Bavaria, Saxony, the Rhine Palatinate, and the Austrian Habsburgs against Louis XIV.


After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, Austria's biggest threat was from Germany.


The "Junkers" were a group of enserfed peasants in Prussia.


The Smirnoff dynasty ruled Russia after the death of Ivan the Terrible.


Catherine the Great of Russia was actually a German who came to the throne upon the death of her husband, Peter III.


The power within Europe was gradually shifting toward the east during the 18th century with the rise of Prussia and Russia.


In the 18th century, infectious disease killed half of all people before they reached the age of 20.


Techniques for printing colored designs on calico cloth were imported from the New World but made illegal in some areas to protect native industry.


Intermarriage between natives and Africans was quite common in the New World, as were the native/English marriages, though African/English marriages were banned.


The mortality rate on a slave ship was about 10%, the same as for a normal sea voyage.


War is the normal state of Europe at any point in its history, and the 18th century was no exception.

All of these: A body of knowledge, a community of practitioners, a system of inquiry, institutions to support the practitioners.

"Science" entails:


Although logic and geometry had played a role in the medieval worldview, _____ would assume a much more central role in the "New Science."


The _____ argued that nature was the way in which God revealed himself to humanity.

the widespread use of the printing press.

The dispersal of ancient texts by the humanists of the late Renaissance that served to encourage study and debate was facilitated by:

Aristotle; Ptolemy

Throughout the Middle Ages, the most important classical authorities on natural philosophy were _____ and _____.

the Roman Catholic Church.

Copernicus' work on the problem of the Ptolemaic system was commissioned by:


Europeans believed, generally, in the geocentric theory of the universe, even though this model was contradicted by empirical evidence discovered over 300 years earlier by:

the implications of his theory of heliocentricity greatly troubled him.

Nicholas Copernicus hesitated to publish his De Revolutionibus because:

6 million

Copernicus calculated the earth to be _____ miles from the sun.

Nicholas Copernicus

_____ made the first challenge to the Ptolemaic conception of the universe.

he did not believe the earth orbited the sun.

Tycho Brahe differed from Copernicus in that:

Mysticism, astrology, and mathematics

Which of the following best describes Johannes Kepler's intellectual foundations?


Kepler believed _____ was God's language.

correct two of Copernicus's assumptions concerning planetary motion.

Johannes Kepler built on the work of his mentor, Tycho Brahe, to:

Johannes Kepler

____ was the "new scientist" whose work laid the foundation for Sir Isaac Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation.


The term heliocentric means:

as a direct threat to church doctrine.

Many Roman Catholic churchmen viewed the "New Science," especially as typified by Copernican theory:

placed Copernicus' work on the Index of Forbidden Books.

In 1616, Galileo Galilei was urged by his supporters to stop promulgating Copernican ideas, when the Catholic Church:


Galileo hoped for support from his friend Maffeo Barberini who became:

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