Flash cards copied from study guide questions relating to chapters 14-17 of Western Civilizations, Volume 2, 17th Edition by Judith Coffin, et. al. HIST1600, Macomb Community College; Professor Akehurst; 2012
increasing population, fixed food supplies, and stagnant wages.
The economy of 16th century Europe was characterized by:
caught most Europeans completely unaware.
The troubles of the late 16th and early 17th centuries:
The primary problem caused by the Price Revolution of the late 16th century was:
the Price Revolution, an increase in poverty, the religious wars, and a rise in taxes (all of these).
The increase in the amount of silver flowing from the Americas to Europe in the 16th century is credited with causing or exacerbating:
More than one factor contributed to the Price Revolution of the late 16th century, but among those factors was:
Merchants and large farmers
Which groups in European society benefited most from the Price Revolution?
the ruler of each principality settled all matters of religion.
The 1555 Peace of Augsburg rested on the principle of "cuius regio, eius religio," which meant:
the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, whose goal was to re-establish Catholic unity within his realm.
The German religious wars may be attributed to:
Which of the following religious orientations did the Peace of Augsburg exclude?
Most French Protestants were:
the Protestant forces in the French Wars of Religion.
Aristocratic women were particularly important supporters of:
recognized Catholicism as the official religion of France.
The Edict of Nantes:
Which of the following religious orientations did the Peace of Augsburg exclude?
During the first half of the 16th century, northern Europe's leading commercial and financial center was:
catholic rule under the Spanish.
William of Orange ("William the Silent") fought during the religious wars to free the Netherlands from:
During the revolt of the Netherlands, the Protestant forces of William the Silent were based in the northern part of the country, where the majority of the population was:
used Spanish troops to rule the Netherlands under martial law.
During the revolt of the Netherlands, the Duke of Alva:
had Spain conquered England, Catholics would have made major inroads against the Protestants.
The English defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 was a decisive moment in Western history because:
a Catholic prince became the ruler of a Protestant territory.
The Thirty Years' War began when:
The Thirty Years' War created the greatest devastation in:
the emergence of France as the dominant power in Europe, eclipsing Spain.
From an international perspective, the Peace of Westphalia (1648) marked:
establishing colonies in the Americas.
Although Spain was the most powerful country in Europe during the 16th century, it sowed the seeds of its eventual decline by:
a decisive altering of the balance of power.
By 1660, Europe had undergone:
open up new silver mines within France.
To promote the economic development of France, Henry IV did all of the following EXCEPT:
to increase and centralize royal power over France.
The primary goal of Cardinal Richelieu's government was:
An aristocratic rebellion against the government of Cardinal Mazarin.
The Fronde was:
King James I.
The Stuart dynasty of English kings began with:
involving England in foreign wars without their consent.
King James I antagonized his parliaments by doing all of the following EXCEPT:
all of these.
The English Civil War was caused by:
encouraging Calvinist doctrine generally without modifying the English prayer book.
James I mediated the conflicts between Catholics and Protestants by:
launched a costly new war against Spain.
Charles I demonstrated his lack of political diplomacy when he:
An invasion force from Scotland.
What forced Charles I to summon a new parliament, after he had ruled without one for 11 years?
Charles' attempt to arrest five parliamentary leaders on the floor of the House of Commons.
The immediate provocation for the outbreak of civil war between king Charles and his parliament was:
the leader of the Parliamentary Army.
Oliver Cromwell rose to power in England as:
Because years of unpopular Calvinist prohibitions on public amusements had discredited Cromwell's Puritan regime.
In 1600, most English men and women welcomed the restoration of the monarchy. Why?
accepted all parliamentary legislation passed before the English Civil War.
As a rule, Charles II:
by state courts.
In 16th and 17th century Europe, most formal trials on charges of witchcraft were carried out:
a pervasive skepticism about all human knowledge.
The main theme of Montaigne's Essays was:
absolute governmental sovereignty.
Jean Bodin's Six Books of the Commonwealth was the first fully developed statement of:
A chivalric mentality had remained important for some segments of European society into the early modern period, but it's anachronistic nature was satirized by:
In his own day, the most popular of the Elizabethan dramatists was:
The Elizabethan author of Doctor Faustus was:
The 16th century writer who portrayedf lower-class people in a very favorable light was:
Many writers of the 16th and 17th centuries were as popular, or even more popular, during their lifetimes as William Shakespeare. Modern scholars consider only one of them, ______, to be his equal in artistic vision.
The architect of the Baroque noted for his Hellenistic-inspired style was:
Peter Breugel the Elder.
Naturalism has a place within Baroque art due to the work of:
The Maids of Honor.
Baroque painting is considered by many to have found its master in Diego Velazquez with such paintings as:
Rembrandt van Rijn
What Dutch painter was famous for his black and white etchings of New Testament scenes?
Peter Paul Rubens stressed the ________ of the Baroque style.
Religious war, political rebellions, economic crises, diminishing confidence in traditional authority (all of these).
Europe, between the mid 16th and mid 17th centuries, witnessed:
Sixteenth-century Europeans believed that the proper role of the state was to enforce true religion on its subjects and that religious pluralism would destroy any state that tried it.
The presence of Jesuits and Calvinists meant religious wars became more brutal.
William of Orange was knows as "William the Silent" because he often deferred public speaking to his wife, Mary.
Sir Francis Drake was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe in search of treasure.
Unlike Spain, which was able to feed itself, France had to import most of its food.
Henry IV declared there should be a chicken in every French family's pot each Sunday as part of his new campaign of prosperity.
The Petition of Right declared that all taxes not voted upon by Parliament to be the property of the Church to stop the revenues from benefiting the king.
During the English Civil War, the parliamentary forces consisted mainly of small landholders and artisans, while the nobility supported the king.
Roughly half of all of those accused of witchcraft were men.
According to Bodin, ensuring the livelihood of its people was the greatest duty of a state.
Shakespeare's The Tempest is representative of his third period of writing in which he displays a spirit of reconciliation and peace.
Mannerism refers to a 16th century style of art which was highly dramatic and emotionally compelling.
Baroque refers to a style of art that contains the dramatic and the irregular but avoided the bizarre nature of late Mannerism.
Brueghel, Rubens, and Rembrandt were very similar painters who explored the topics of man's wretchedness and greatness to the fullest.
Rembrandt gained fame initially as a painter of biblical scenes.
allowed rulers to govern by divine right and according to their own will.
In the 17th and 18th centuries, absolutism was a political theory that:
According to Chapter 15, which European government developed into an autocracy in the early modern period?
the 16th and early 17th centuries were times of great disorder in Europe.
Absolutist rulers such as Louis XIV sought control over the state because:
The most important opponents of royal absolutism were:
demonstrate the grandeur of his rule and to control the French nobility.
Louis XIV used the Palace of Versailles to:
According to the justification given for absolutism, the fundamental basis for order and justice in the world is:
highly centralized, with everyone being appointed by and reporting to the king.
The government of France under Louis XIV would be best described as:
imposed religious unity upon all French people.
In general, the religious policites of Louis XIV aimed to:
The Royal Finance Minister who increased revenues in France during the reign of Louis XIV was:
were an enormous drain on the Treasury of France.
The wars of Louis XIV:
According to the French finance minister, Colbert, one underlying principle of mercantilism is:
The governmental system used by the United Provinces in the Netherlands throughout the 17th century was:
began modeling his kingship on the absolutism of Louis XIV.
In England, Charles II triggered a crisis not unlike that produced by his father's rule when he:
Alhough most European countries have had representative assemblies, the longest surviving assembly is in:
and his second wife, Mary of Modena, had a son, a Catholic heir to the throne.
James II of England angered his critics and set off a national crisis when he:
it established England, without bloodshed, as a mixed monarchy governed by "the King in Parliament."
The English call the 1688-89 transfer of power to William and Mary the "Glorious Revolution" because:
legitimate government authority is conditional and contractual.
In his Two Treatises of Government, John Locke argued that:
The War of the Spanish Succession was fought when the Spanish king, ______, died without an heir.
giving Great Britain trading rights and desirable French territory in the New World.
The Treaty of Utrecht (1713) altered the balance of power in Europe by:
the Ottoman Empire.
The balance of power in central and eastern Europe was reshaped at the end of the 17th and beginning of the 18th centuries because of the loss of power of:
became "enlightened," but was still limited by weaknesses within the empire.
Under Maria Theresa and her son, Habsburg, absolutism:
All of these: Created a system of public elementary education, relaxed censorship, created a standing professional army, and increased their control of the church.
As an "enlightened" absolutist monarchy, the Habsburgs of Austria:
exerting prudent financial leadership and building a large army.
Frederick William I made Prussia strong by:
invading Silesia and Poland, and carefully consolidating his gains.
Frederick the Great, of Prussia, made Prussia a major European power by:
the introduction of western ideas and customs.
In general, the policies of Peter the Great of Russia included:
The great peasant uprising of the 17th century was lead by:
secure year-round ports for Russia.
The goal of Peter the Great's foreign policy was to:
The balance of power in eastern Europe was realigned in 1721 with the Peace of:
peasants revoled in 1773-75 and threatened Moscow.
Catherine the Great's interest in codifying and liberalizing Russian law was essentially abandoned when:
Frederick the Great.
Poland lost 30% of its territory and 50% of its population as a result of an agreement brokered bewteen Prussia, Austria, and Russia by:
Maize and potatoes
In the 18th century, Europe's traditional food supply was augmented by which new products from the Americas?
By the late 18th century, the population of Naples, Italy, had reached nearly:
An important technical innovation in early modern Holland was a machine called the _____, by which the hulls of ships could be raised in the water for repair.
the law of supply and demand.
The consumerism of the 18th century grew to allow more people to buy goods that had been luxuries only a short time before; however, one result of this situation was a rise in the cost of such goods caused by:
the principles of mercantilist theory.
The economic nature of the Spanish colonies in the 16th and 17th centuries reflected:
In the French colonial system, the greatest profits came from:
the uprooting and resettlement of large numbers of native people.
Social relations in the Spanish colonies of Central and South America were characterized by all of the following EXCEPT:
their Asian, African, and American colonies.
European wealth and prosperity in the 17th and 18th centuries may be attributed at least in part to:
quite a bit of piracy, as English sailors seized Spanish cargo Ships for the plunder.
When England began to break into international colonial trade, its efforts were marked by:
The cultivation of New World sugar and tobacco depended on:
they showed little interest in converting Native merican peoples to Christianity.
Although the Puritans left England to escape the government's attempt to impose religious conformity:
wildly profitable, they encouraged its consumption.
European governments at first jointed the church in condemning the use of tobacco, but when it became:
The most valuable Dutch colonies during the 17th century were in:
Approximately how many Africans were transported across the Atlantic Ocean during the 18th century to be sold as slaves?
trade the slaves for molasses in Jamaica.
On a typical merchant run along the "triangle trade" route, a British ship would sail from New England with rum, trade the rum for slaves in Africa, and then:
Of all the slaves brought to the western hemisphere from Africa, approximately _____ percent came to North America.
French and the English.
The Portugese and the Spanish had begun modern European colonization, but by the mid 18th century the European leaders were the:
The Seven Years' war.
One of the important causes of the American Revolution was Britain's success in:
The Dutch Republic
In 1780, Britain declared war on _____ for continuing to trade with the colonies during the American Revolution.
the final military conflict in a century-long struggle between Great Britain and France.
In the context of early modern European history, the American War of Independence was:
In the late 17th century, European wars almost always had a colonial aspect.
The absolute monarchs ruled only with the consent of their nobles and people.
"Whigs" was a nickname for the supporters of King Charles II.
Habeas corpus is a guarantee that no one can be imprisoned unless charged with a crime.
The League of Augsburg united Holland, England, Spain, Sweden, Bavaria, Saxony, the Rhine Palatinate, and the Austrian Habsburgs against Louis XIV.
After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, Austria's biggest threat was from Germany.
The "Junkers" were a group of enserfed peasants in Prussia.
The Smirnoff dynasty ruled Russia after the death of Ivan the Terrible.
Catherine the Great of Russia was actually a German who came to the throne upon the death of her husband, Peter III.
The power within Europe was gradually shifting toward the east during the 18th century with the rise of Prussia and Russia.
In the 18th century, infectious disease killed half of all people before they reached the age of 20.
Techniques for printing colored designs on calico cloth were imported from the New World but made illegal in some areas to protect native industry.
Intermarriage between natives and Africans was quite common in the New World, as were the native/English marriages, though African/English marriages were banned.
The mortality rate on a slave ship was about 10%, the same as for a normal sea voyage.
War is the normal state of Europe at any point in its history, and the 18th century was no exception.
All of these: A body of knowledge, a community of practitioners, a system of inquiry, institutions to support the practitioners.
Although logic and geometry had played a role in the medieval worldview, _____ would assume a much more central role in the "New Science."
The _____ argued that nature was the way in which God revealed himself to humanity.
the widespread use of the printing press.
The dispersal of ancient texts by the humanists of the late Renaissance that served to encourage study and debate was facilitated by:
Throughout the Middle Ages, the most important classical authorities on natural philosophy were _____ and _____.
the Roman Catholic Church.
Copernicus' work on the problem of the Ptolemaic system was commissioned by:
Europeans believed, generally, in the geocentric theory of the universe, even though this model was contradicted by empirical evidence discovered over 300 years earlier by:
the implications of his theory of heliocentricity greatly troubled him.
Nicholas Copernicus hesitated to publish his De Revolutionibus because:
Copernicus calculated the earth to be _____ miles from the sun.
_____ made the first challenge to the Ptolemaic conception of the universe.
he did not believe the earth orbited the sun.
Tycho Brahe differed from Copernicus in that:
Mysticism, astrology, and mathematics
Which of the following best describes Johannes Kepler's intellectual foundations?
Kepler believed _____ was God's language.
correct two of Copernicus's assumptions concerning planetary motion.
Johannes Kepler built on the work of his mentor, Tycho Brahe, to:
____ was the "new scientist" whose work laid the foundation for Sir Isaac Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation.
The term heliocentric means:
as a direct threat to church doctrine.
Many Roman Catholic churchmen viewed the "New Science," especially as typified by Copernican theory:
placed Copernicus' work on the Index of Forbidden Books.
In 1616, Galileo Galilei was urged by his supporters to stop promulgating Copernican ideas, when the Catholic Church:
Galileo hoped for support from his friend Maffeo Barberini who became:
Grand Duchess Christina.
Galileo Galilei set forth his conviction about religion and science in a 1615 letter to:
promoted Copernican ideas and had insulted his old patron, Cardinal Barberini, who was now Pope Urban VIII.
Galileo Galilei was brought to trial by the Inquisition because he:
all of these: His imprisonment, putting him off his work, a "new philosophy" based on Galileo's work in NW Europe, his work being placed on the Index.
The trial of Galileo by the Inquisition resulted in:
the New Science flourished in NW Europe.
One result of Galileo's trial was that:
The view that progress may be made only through cooperative effort, without regard to established dogma or national boundaries, was made by Francis Bacon in his book:
A method of reasoning that goes from the specific to the general was developed by:
"I think, therefore I am."
The bulk of philosophy of Rene Descartes may be summed up by which statement?
The primary target of Descartes' philosophical method was:
The Discourse on Method.
Rene Descartes believed he had proven the existence of God through his use of systematic doubt in his book:
All of the following contributed greatly to the development of 16th century astronomy EXCEPT:
The deductive method of inquiry was formulated by:
All of these.
an application of geometry and ethics to prove the single substance of the universe was both God and nature.
Science reinforced a belief in God through:
Which English natural philosopher discovered the cellular structure of plants?
One of the founders of modern chemistry was the Englishman:
Although Rene Descartes believed he had proven the existence of God, _____ believed he had proven that the universe was a single substance that was both God and nature.
was encouraged in England and other countries through the establishment of royal societies.
In European states, the New Science:
All of these.
The new scientific societies:
The second national scholarly academy to be established by the reigning monarch was in:
Elena Cornaro Piscopia.
The first woman to receive a doctorate degree in philosophy in Italy was:
Maria Sibylla Merian.
Although science during this period was primarily the domain of men, many women also made their mark, such as the astronomer Maria Winkelmann and the entomologist:
One of the leading German astronomers of the 17th century was:
Although it was the norm with European academic societies to not admit women, one exception to this was:
While many men and women wrote during the 17th century concerning the ability of women to fully participate in the scientific realm, none wrote quite so passionately as _____, who wrote of the "tyrannical government of men over women."
a recluse who spent his time in Cambridge.
As a leader of the "scientific revolution," Isaac Newton was:
Isaac Newton's best-known work today was his research conducted on:
Galileo had made improvements on the lens developed by the Dutch for use in telescopes, but some of the earliest work on the nature of how humans see was done by:
Sir Isaac Newton published Principia Mathematica to answer critiques of his theories coming primarily from:
demonstrate the ability of mathematics to explain the workings of the universe.
One effect of the work of Isaac Newton was to:
From the 17th century on, there existed a fundamental shift in the view of the world by the Western world. To be considered "modern," one now approached the world through:
Science and faith are compatible and mutually supporting.
Which of the following best describes Sir Isaac Newton's attitude toward Christianity?
The scientific revolution stood apart from other social, religious and cultural transformations.
The "prime mover" was the force that put into place the motions of the celestial bodies and was interpreted as being the Christian God.
The "Ptolemaic system" was the first system to question whether planets moved in a circular path around a stationary earth.
Tycho Brahe's greatest contribution to astronomy was his building of the first observatory on a small island granted to him by the Danish king.
Galileo argued that one could not be both a sincere Copernican and a Catholic.
"Simplicio" (Simpleton) was a character in Galileo's "Dialogue" who represented the new science.
Galileo's work apparently had no support from within the Catholic church.
Galileo's works were widely translated and widely read and raised awareness of changes in natural philosophy across Europe.
Galileo's work was smuggled out of Italy and published in England.
Descartes introduced a new method for understanding called deductive reasoning, which relied on proceeding logically from one certainty to another.
Baruch Spinoza applied geometry to ethics and deduced that the universe was made of a single substance that was both God and nature in one.
While the French scholastic societies reserved science as "a gentlemanly pursuit," English societies freely admitted women.
For Newton, science, if properly conducted, could always uncover the causes of phenomena.
Newton realized his work was groundbreaking, but he proved to be an egotistical recluse who did not credit his predecessors' work in laying a foundation for his own, bringing upon himself the censure of his peers.
Science was slow to work its way into people's understanding because it undermined religion, which was the foundation block of western society.
Voltaire's attitude toward injustice, fanaticism, and intolerance was solidified due to a murder case tried in 1762; the defendant in the case was:
All of these: The danger of arbitrary and unchecked authority, the value of religious toleration, the overriding importance of law, the importance of reason in all affairs.
A primary concern of the Enlightenment was:
scientific revolution of the 15th and 16th centuries.
The genesis of the Enlightenment may be found in the:
The Enlightenment was not confined to any single area of human endeavor, but was evident in the science, music, and politics of the age. Some scientific thinkers might be politically conservative, while some political thinkers were truly radical in their views. Among this radical group was:
A cornerstone of Enlightenment thinking was skepticism, as developed by the Scottish philospher:
John Locke is best known today as a political philosopher, but in the 18th century he was better known for his studies of:
the environment determines all social progress.
For the philosophers, an important implication of John Locke's tabula rasa was:
The motto of the Enlightenment "Dare to know!" was coined by:
a few clear points."
The end that Enlightenment thinkers sought was summarized by Alexander Pope in his "Essay on Man" when he wrote, "The science of human nature may be, like all other sciences, reduced to:
A philosophe may be defined as an individual who was a [an]:
its constitutional monarchy and policy of religious toleration.
The philosophes of the Enlightenment, as exemplified by Voltaire, particularly admired England because of:
Although much admired in many segments of the population, Voltaire's forthrightness kept him in trouble and even got him a short stay in prison in the:
Francois Marie Arouet (Voltaire).
The Enlightenment battle cry of "ecrasez l'infame" best represents the ideas of:
in favor of the separation and balancing of the powers of government.
In "the Spirit of the Laws," Baron de Montesquieu argued:
One of the most remarkable publications of pre-revolutionary France was Denis Diderot's:
the only legitimate rationale for punishment was to maintain the social order.
The life and career of Cesare Beccaria was dedicated to the idea that:
God created the universe, but no longer took any active interest in it.
Deism, the "religion" of the Enlightenment, expressed the belief that:
Paul Henri d'Holbach.
Most Enlightenment thinkers who might be labeled as deists were theists; of the few who were atheists, the most famous was:
superstitious and backward religions.
In general, the philosophes considered Judaism and Islam:
In general, the philosophes held relatively disparaging views of Judaism, _____, a German philosopher, was a notable exception.
____ was a Jewish philosopher who argued that religion should be voluntary, that secular states should promote tolerance, and that progress for everyone would come through humanitarianism.
Unlike the French physiocrats who believed that the wealth of a nation came from the land and agricultural production, Adam Smith believed that the wealth of a nation came from its:
all humans are rational and are the best judges of their own interests.
The "invisible hand" of Adam Smith's theory could best guide economic activity because:
the discovery of the New World.
According to the Abbe Guillaume Thomas Francois Raynal, the one event that had a profound impact on Europeans was:
Slavery corrupted it's victims, and so slaves were not ready for freedom.
Which of the following best expresses the philosophes' attitude toward slavery?
the Society of Friends of Blacks.
One philosophe organization, founded by Warville de Brissot, which called for the abolition of slavery was:
Although the philosophes condemned slavery, they did not argue for its immediate abolition and used many different means of avoiding the issue. One of their number, _____, exposed the hypocrisy of this approach by wondering how the Europeans would view slavery if they themselves were being enslaved.
The South Pacific region was explored extensively by both the French and the English. The French explorer, Louis-Anne de Bougainville, searched the South Pacific in search of a new route to China. He was soon followed by the English explorer:
Louis-Anna de Bougainville.
The South Pacific island of Tahiti was first discovered for the Europeans by:
in its natural state.
Closely following voyages of discovery, many Enlightenment thinkers such as Denis Diderot believed that the Tahitians best represented humanity:
Alexander von Humboldt
Although much exploration was carried out by the French and the English, people from many other nations participated in the exploration of the New World. One of these, _____, was hailed by Charles Darwin as "the greatest scientific traveler who ever lived."
The Social Contract
Although not well understood when first published in the 18th century, Jean-Jacques Rousseau's book, _____, would become very influential during the French Revolution later in the same century.
equal citizens obeying the laws they had made themselves.
According to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, freedom meant:
children are, by nature, good and equal in their capacity to learn.
In his novel Emile, Jean-Jacques Rousseau argued that:
the shifting meaning of "nature" by the middle of the 18th century.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau's somewhat conflicting views of female nature illustrate:
Jean-Jacques Rousseau's fellow philosophes deemed which of his books as "hysterical and obscene"?
all men and women share a common humanity.
In her Vindication of the Rights of Women, Mary Wollstonecraft argued that:
Mary Wollstonecraft believed that equality laid the basis for virtue and thus argued that society ought to seek "the perfection of our nature and capability of:
was uneven in its implementation.
With the rise in literacy and the book business in the 18th century, censorship:
its cosmopolitan nature.
The 18th century Enlightenment produced an elite or high culture that was typified by:
The general culture that developed from the 18th century Enlightenment was:
The philosophes of the 18th century used people's houses in which to meet and converse on a more informal basis than that provided by the royal academies. These informal meetings were known as:
The 18th century saw the birth of a new literary genre, the novel, and the growing acceptance of women as authors. The most famous woman from this period, as recognized today, was the English novelist:
85 and 60
Although the majority of people possessed few books, at most a Bible and one or two other religious works, it appears now that literacy rates were much higher than had previously been believed, perhaps as high as _____ percent for men and _____ percent for women in European urban centers.
Even with the literacy rate that Europe enjoyed, formal schooling remained a goal yet to be attained. For example, by the end of the 18th century in Russia, only _____ out of a population of 40 million had attended any kind of school.
was intended to sound orderly, clear and balanced.
The "classical" style of music that swept Europe in the late 18th century:
Johanne Sebastian Bach was one of the greatest composers of the:
Although George Frederic Handel began his career in London composing Italian-style operas, he is best remembered today for his oratorios, the most famous of which is:
The one 18th century European city with a commercial market for culture, including music, was:
Opera, a very popular musical form during the 18th century was developed in the 17th century by:
Of all the thinkers from the scientific revolution, John Locke had the widest ranging impact on Enlightenment scholars.
Tabula rasa means "human mind."
Voltaire's reputation stemmed not from his philosophy, but from his effectiveness as an advocate.
Unlike the writers of the scientific revolution, the Enlightenment writers wrote for large audiences.
The Dictionnaire was the greatest achievement of the philosophes, bringing an understanding of language and its history to the common people.
The Enlightenment was not only a western European trend in thinking, it was also found in central and southern Europe.
Due to the high regard the philosophes such as Voltaire had for England, English became the language of the Enlightenment.
According to Lessing, religion is authentic or true only insofar as it makes the believer virtuous.
Laissez-Faire economics came from the writings of the Scottish economist Adam Smith who argued against state monopolies and for the encouragement of individual interests in the economy.
Captain Cook was killed by cannibals in New Zealand, adding to the ferocity of the western image of the Maori.
Rousseau argued that men and women should receive the same education to enable them to be and create good citizens.
The first daily newspaper was printed in London.
The fastest growing group of readers in the 18th century was the female middle class.
Literacy rates were highest in the country where industry was slower and communities were closer to enable education and the borrowing of books.