human history in the period before recorded events known mainly through archaeological discoveries, study, research
the period of human history when humans used simple stone tools (c. 2,500,000-10,000 b.c.)
latest part of the stone-age beginning about 10,000 BC in the middle-east (but later elsewhere)
an advanced level of human society, in which a high level of culture, science, industry, and government has been reached
Agricultural (Neolithic) Revolution
the shift from hunting and gathering to planting and growing
between the Stone Age and the Iron Age, characterized by the use of weapons and implements made of bronze
an ancient region in west Asia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, now part of Iraq
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
The land between these two rivers contained the early civilizations of Mesopotamia
a massive stepped tower upon which a temple dedicated to the chief god or goddess of a Sumerian city was built
a form of government where God or a deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler, the God's or deity's laws being interpreted by the ecclesiastical authorities
Code of Hammurabi
A collection of 282 laws which were enforced under Hammurabi's Rule. One of the first examples of written law in the ancient civilizations.
Belief in more than one god
"wedge-shaped." A system of writing developed by the Sumerians that consisted of wedge-shaped impressions made by a reed stylus on clay tablets
Epic of Gilgamesh
an epic poem from Mesopotamia, and among the earliest known works of literary writing.
Egypt: Old Kingdom
Encompassed the 3rd through the 6th dynasties of Egyptian kings, when the largest pyramids of Egypt's history where built.
Egypt: Middle Kingdom
A new period of stability lasting from 2055-1650 B.C. Characterized by a new concern on part of the pharaohs for the people.
quadrilateral masonry mass having smooth, steeply sloping sides, meeting at an apex, used as a tomb
making a dead body into a mummy by embalming and drying
a nomadic people who conquered and ruled ancient Egypt between the 13th and 18th dynasties; believed to have been a Semitic people that originally migrated into Egypt from Asia
early ruler of Egypt who rejected the old gods and replaced them with sun worship (died in 1358 BC)
the world's longest river, that produced annual flooding, starts in Africa, seen as life-enhancing
The first Indo-European peoples to make use of iron. Assembled their own empire in western Asia, threatened the power of the Egyptians.
Founder of Judaism who led his family from Ur to Canaan in obedience to God's command.
Israel as one kingdom with Jerusalem as it's capitol, brought together by David.
One of Saul's lieutenants who reunited the Israelite's, defeated the Philistines, and established control over all Canaan.
David's son who expanded the political and military establishments and extended the trading activities of the Israelites. Most famous for his building projects: Temple in Jerusalem.
the result of the division of Israel into two separate nations: Israel and Judah
People of Judah were deported to Babylonia and held in captivity
an ancient kingdom of southern Palestine with Jerusalem as its center
belief in a single God
Hebrew name for God; what the Jews called God
led his people out of bondage to "the promised land"
covenant between Yahweh and the Israelites; and important part of the Jewish life. Torah
certain religious leaders or "hold men" who were sent by God as a voice to His people. Micah, Isaiah, and Amos.
A Semitic-speaking people who resided along the Mediterranean coast on a narrow band of land, international sea traders.
Located on the upper Tigris river. A Semitic-speaking people who exploited the use of iron weapons to establish an empire by 700 B.C. Had a great ability to conquer. Used various military tactics and a climate of terror to conquer. Mixed with other peoples.
An Indo-European speaking people related to the Medes.
Cyrus the Great
A remarkable leader who managed to reunite the Persian Empire in a powerful kingdom. Under Cyrus, Persia began building an empire larger than any yet seen in the world. King of Persia.
a governor with both civil and military duties in the ancient Persian Empire, which was divided into satrapies, or provinces, each administered by a satrap.
The great king of Persia. He was able to become a king after a year of a civil war following the death of someone. He is responsible for the expansion of Persia. He made a province in western India and expanded Persia as far north as Macedonia
a religion founded by the Persian Zoroaster in the seventh century b.c. characterized by worship of a supreme god Ahuramazda who represents the good against the evil spirit, identified as Ahriman.
the Royal Road
Ancient highway reorganized and rebuilt by the Persian king Darius I of the Achaemenid Empire in the 5th century B.C. Darius built the road to facilitate rapid communication throughout his very large empire.
Geography of Greece
Mountainous. Most of Greece consists of small plains and river valleys surrounded by mountain ranges. The mountainous terrain had the effect of isolating the Greeks from one another. Each Greek community followed their own separate paths and their own way of life.
characteristic of the ancient Greek and Roman cultures
A warrior people who prided themselves for their heroic deeds in battle.
A kingdom that was destroyed by the Greeks in the Trojan War.
Mycenaeans vs. Troy. Trojan Prince kidnapped Helen, wife of the Mycenaen's king. Greeks won when they tricked the Trojans with the Trojan Horse. The Iliad gives information about the Trojan War.
Powerful city in Ancient Greece that was run like a military state. It competed with Athens for dominance
Powerful city in Ancient Greece that was a leader in arts, sciences, philosophy, democracy and architecture. Greece's capitol and largest city.
Homer's Iliad and Odyssey
great epic poems of early Greece, were based on stories that had been passed down from generation to generation. Iliad: Trojan war. Odyssey: the journeys of a Greek hero (Odysseus) after the fall of Troy and his ultimate return to his wife.
Connected to every aspect of daily life: Boys prepared to be warriors, girls to be mothers. Temples to worship gods. Twelve chief gods and goddesses. Greeks had great desire to know the will of the gods.
the supreme god of ancient Greek mythology
goddess of wisdom and useful arts and prudent warfare
ancient god of the sun
a large hill in ancient Greece where city residents sought shelter and safety in times of war and met to discuss community affairs
doctrine that knowledge is acquired by reason without resort to experience
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
the belief in government by divine guidance
a political system governed by a few people
a government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility
state ruled over by a single person, as a king or queen
A series of wars between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire (5th century B.C.).
Athenian leader noted for advancing democracy in Athens and for ordering the construction of the Parthenon.
A war in which Athens and its allies were defeated by the league centered on Sparta
an ancient Greek city-state encompassing both an urban area and its surrounding countryside a small but autonomous political unit where all major political and social activities were carried out in a central location.
heavily armed infantry soldiers used in ancient Greece in a phalanx formation.
a rectangular formation of tightly massed infantry soldiers.
Battle of Marathon
Darius sent Persian army to attack Athens; Athens defeated Persians
Battle of Thermopylae
Battle during the Persian wars in which Spartan troops fought to the death against a much larger Persian force
an alliance headed by Athens that says that all Greek city-states will come together and help fight the Persians
the main temple of the goddess Athena
Student of Socrates, wrote a great deal. concerned with what was real. Wrote The Republic.
Student of Plato, tutor of Alexander the Great. Greek philosopher who proposed theories to explain many aspects of human behavior; believed all knowledge comes from sensory experiences
Greek philosopher who believed in an absolute right or wrong; asked students pointed questions to make them use their reason, later became Socratic method
one of the main city-states; located in Sicily; Athens attacked this city state (which was a disaster for the Athens) while they were in a war with Sparta
the ancient kingdom of Philip II and Alexander the Great in the southeastern Balkans that is now divided among modern Macedonia and Greece and Bulgaria
The father of Alexander the Great; A king of Macedonia. Conquered many areas, which set the stage for Alexander the Great to add on to what he had already conquered.
Served to break the opposing line of battle and create disorder in the enemy's ranks. Phalanx was supported by this.
long, double ended spears that are used in a phalanx
a word meaning to "imitate Greeks"; Greek-speaking civilization which spread through many lands of the eastern Mediterranean and beyond following the conquests of Alexander the Great.
Alexander the Great
Conquered and ruled an empire stretching from Macedonia to the Indus Valley
one of many cities of that name founded by Alexander the Great.
Battle of Gaugamela
Battle with the persians, when alexanders men were clearly outnumbered but he still was about to defeat them. this would decide who becomes king of Asia
king of Persia who was defeated by Alexander the Great
Battle of Porus
Men fought on elephants against Alexander, who left Porus to be king as long as he pledged his loyalty to Alexander.
They controlled Persia after the death of Alexander. Their king was one of Alexander's generals.
Battle of Issus
Alexander made a straight charge for Darius III, who fled the battlefield
Siege of Tyre
Alexander the Great built a land bridge and finally found a weakness in the wall and broke through south side and easily took the city.
One of the regional dynasties that followed the death of Alexander the Great; founded in Egypt
a regional dynasty after the death of Alexander, ruled in Macedon and Greece.