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97 terms

The eye

STUDY
PLAY
aque/o
water
blephar/o
eyelid
conjunctiv/o
conjunctiva-to join together
corne/o
cornea
kerat/o
cornea
cycl/o
ciliary body-circle
ir/o
iris (colored circle)
irid/o
iris (colored circle)
lacrim/o
tear
dacry/o
tear
ocul/o
eye
opthalm/o
eye
opt/o
eye
phac/o
lens (lentil)
phak/o
lens (lentil)
phot/o
light
presby/o
old age
retin/o
retina
scler/o
sclera (hard)
vitre/o
glassy
-opia
condition of vision
anterior chamber
fluid-filled space btwn the cornea and iris
aqueous humor
watery liquid secreted at the ciliary body that fills the ant and posterior chambers of the eye and provides nourishment for the cornea, iris, and lens
canal of Schlemm
duct in the ant. chamber that carries filtered aq. humor to the veins and bloodstream
choroid
vascular layer beneath the sclera that provides nourishment to the outer portion of the retina
ciliary body
ring of muscle behind the peripheral iris that controls the power of the lens
ciliary muscle
smooth muscle portion of the ciliary body, which contracts to assist in near-vision
ciliary process
epithelia tissue folds on the inner surface of the ciliary body that secretes aq. humor
conjunctiva
joining together; mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and outer surface of the eyeball
cornea
transparent, ant. part of the eyeball convering the iris, pupil, and ant. chamber that functions to refract (bend) light to focus visual image
eyelid (palpebra)
moveable protective fold that opens and closes, covering the eye
fovea centralis
pinpoint depression in the center of the macula lutea that is the site of sharpest vision
fundus (base)
interior surface of the eyeball including the retina, optic disk, macula, and posterior pole (curative at the back of the eye)
glands of Zeis
oil glands surrounding the eyelashes
meibomian glands
oil glands located along the rim of the eyelids
iris
colred circle; colred prt of the eye located behind the cornea that contracts and dilates to regulate light passing through the pupil
lacrimal gland
gland located in the upper outer region above the eyeball that secretes the tears
lacrimal ducts
tubes that carry tears to the lacrimal sac
lacrimal sac
structure that collect tears before emptying into the nasalcrimal duct
lens
transparent structure behind the pupil that bends and focuses light rays on the retina
lens capsule
capsule that encloses the lens
macula lutea (macula)
central region of the retina responsible for central vision; yellow pigment provides its color
nasolacrimal duct
passageway for tears from the lacrimal sac into the nose
optic disk
exit site of retinal nerve fibers, as well as the entrance point for retinal arteries and the exit point for retinal veins
optic nerve
nerve responsible for carrying impulses for the sense of sight from the retina to the brain
posterior chamber
space btwn the back of the iris and the front of the vitreous filled with aq. fluid
pupil
black circular opening in the center of iris through which light passes as it enters the eye
retina
innermost layer that perceives and transmits light to the optic nerve
cones
cone-shaped cells within the retina that are color sensitive and respond to bright light
rods
rod-shaped cells within the retina that responds to dim light
scerla
tough, fibrous, white outer coat extending from the cornea to the optic nerve
trabecular meshwork
mesh-like structures in the ant. chamber that filters the aq. humor as it flows into the canal of Sclemm
vitreous
jelly-like mass filling the inner chamber btwn the lens and retina that gives bulk to the eye
asthenopia
eyestrain
blepharospasm
involun. contraction of the muscles surrounding the eye, causing uncontrolled blinking and lid squeezing
diplopia
double vision
exophthalmos
abnorm. protrusion of one or both eyeballs
exopthalmus
abnorm. protrusion of one or both eyeballs
lacrimation
secretion of tears
nystagmus
involunt., rapid oscillating movement of the eyeballs
photophobia
extreme sensitivity to, and discomfort from, light
scotoma
blind spot vision
refractive errors
defects in the bending of light as it enters the eye, causing an improper focus on the retina
astigmatism
distorted vision caused by an oblong or cylindrical curvature of the lens or cornea that prevents light rays from coming to a single focus on the retina
hyperopia
farsightedness; diff. seeing close objects when light rays extend beyond the proper focus on the retina
myopia
niearsightedness; diff. seeing distant obj. when light rays falls short of the proper focus on the retina
presbyopia
impaired vision owing to old-age loss of accommodation
accommodation
ability of the eye to adjust focus on near objects
ambylopia
decreased vision in early life due to a functional defect that an occur as a result of strabismus, refractive errors (one is more nearsighted, farsighted, or astigmatic that the other) or trauma; usually occurs in one eye, also known as lazy eye
aphakia
absence of the lens, usually after cataract extraction
blepharitis
inflammation of the eyelid
blepharochalasis
baggy eyelid; overabundance and loss of elasticity of skin on the upper eyelid, causing a fold of skin to hang down over the edge of the eyelid when the eyes are open.
dermatochalasis
baggy eyelid; overabundance and loss of elasticity of skin on the upper eyelid, causing a fold of skin to hang down over the edge of the eyelid when the eyes are open.
blepharoptosis
drooping of the eyelid usually causing by paralysis
ptosis
drooping of the eyelid usually causing by paralysis
chalazion
chronic nodular inflamm. of the meibomian gland, usually the result of a blocked duct; commonly presents as a swelling on the upper or lower eyelid
cataract
opaque clouding of the lens causing decreased vision
conjunctivitis
pink eye; inflamm. of conjunctiva
dacryocystitis
inflamm. of the tear sac
diabetic retinopathy
disease of the retina in diabetics characterized by capillary leakage, bleeding, and new vessel formation, leading to scarring and loss vision
ectropion
outward turning of the rim of the eyelid
entropion
inward turning of the rim of the eyelid
epiphora
abnorm. overflow of tears caused by blockage of the lacrimal duct
glaucoma
group of diseases of the eye characterized by increased intraocular pressure that results in damage to the optic nerve, producing defects in vision
hordeolum
sty; an acute infection of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid
iritis
inflamm. of the iris
keratitis
inflamm. of the cornea
macular degneration
breakdown or thinning of the tissues in the macula, resulting in partial or complete loss of central vision
pseudophakia
eye in which the natural lens is replaced with an artificial lens implant
pterygium
fibrous growth of conjuctival tissue that extends onto the cornea
retinal detachment
seperation of the retina from the underlying epithelium, disrupting vision and resulting in blindness if not repaired surgically
retinitis
inflamm. of the retina
strabismus
crossed eyes; a condition of eye misalignment caused by intraocular muscle imbalance
esotropia
right or left eye deviates inward towards the nose
exotropia
right or left eye deviates outward away from the nose
scleritis
inflamm. of sclera
trichiasis
misdirected eyelashes that rub on the conjuctiva or cornea