For the units in her high school physics class, Ms. Galloway develops a series of experiments for students to work on independently at their own pace within a specified time frame. After each experiment, students turn in their lab notes and a detailed report, and Ms. Galloway notes any problems for students to review. Students determine how to improve and revise their work according to Ms. Galloway's feedback before they can move on to the next experiment. As the school year progresses, Ms. Galloway is very pleased with the overall improvement in her students' lab skills, scientific thinking, and writing skills. However, she feels overwhelmed by the amount of time she spends reviewing student work and maintaining student records. Ms. Galloway discusses the issue with her mentor teacher who helps her list the specific problems she is having, as shown below.

1. Too much class time gets wasted collecting and passing out student papers.

2. Too much time is spent sorting and matching lab notes and reports before they can be read.

3. Students sometimes misplace or lose part of their earlier sets of notes on a particular experiment, making it difficult to monitor their progress.

To best help Ms. Galloway identify potential solutions for the listed problems, the mentor should suggest that Ms. Galloway

A. initiate a personal blog of classroom management teaching experiences.

B. chat with an online community of teachers about managing materials.

C. join a professional educational association that focuses on classroom management.

D. review research-based educational articles about managing materials. A father complained to Ms. Adair, a fifth-grade teacher, about an incident that occurred between his son and another fifth-grade teacher, Ms. Riley. The father feels Ms. Riley has treated his son unfairly. To best maintain her professionalism in the situation, Ms. Adair should

A. state her opinion, calm the parent, and report the complaint about Ms. Riley to the principal.

B. suggest a conference between the student, the parent, and Ms. Riley.

C. discuss the incident, agree with the parent, and advocate the parent's perspective to Ms. Riley.

D. defend Ms. Riley's approach to the parent and reprimand the student. Before students begin their research, Ms. Soto posts the broad mathematics goal on the chalkboard. The following is the class discussion.

Ms. Soto:

OK, I have written the mathematics goal on the board, "To practice estimation skills." We completed an estimation unit about a week ago. We used a jar of jelly beans to start out the unit... does anyone remember what estimating is in measurement?

Corey:

It's when you figure how much something weighs or how many things there are, or something like that. I mean, not exactly how much, but around how much.

Ms. Soto:

Yes, that's correct. You give an educated guess. We estimated how many jelly beans were in a jar based on the size of the jar and the size of the jelly beans. Now, for our research, we are going to use estimation to help others understand the size of the animal based on things that we already know. For example, let's look at this science textbook. We don't know how much it weighs, but what can you tell me about its weight? [No one volunteers to answer the question.] Well, let's see, is the textbook heavier or lighter than this magazine?

Several students:

Heavier!

Ms. Soto:

Good! Now what's another question you could ask to help us estimate its weight?

Amanda:

You could ask if it's heavier or lighter than a student dictionary, and it's lighter.

[The conversation continues, and students practice estimating the relative heights and volumes of different objects.]

Ms. Soto:

So for each of the endangered animals you research, you will be responsible for helping us understand its height and weight in terms of estimation based on things that we already know. For example, an African elephant can weigh more than four tons and stand twelve feet tall. In terms that we can understand, that's the weight of three average-sized cars and the height of a tall man standing on the shoulders of another tall man.

Ms. Soto mentions the jelly bean activity primarily to do which of the following?

A. Connect ideas to prior knowledge

B. Relate the project to real life

C. Stimulate critical thinking

D. Encourage visual learners Before students begin their research, Ms. Soto posts the broad mathematics goal on the chalkboard. The following is the class discussion.

Ms. Soto:

OK, I have written the mathematics goal on the board, "To practice estimation skills." We completed an estimation unit about a week ago. We used a jar of jelly beans to start out the unit... does anyone remember what estimating is in measurement?

Corey:

It's when you figure how much something weighs or how many things there are, or something like that. I mean, not exactly how much, but around how much.

Ms. Soto:

Yes, that's correct. You give an educated guess. We estimated how many jelly beans were in a jar based on the size of the jar and the size of the jelly beans. Now, for our research, we are going to use estimation to help others understand the size of the animal based on things that we already know. For example, let's look at this science textbook. We don't know how much it weighs, but what can you tell me about its weight? [No one volunteers to answer the question.] Well, let's see, is the textbook heavier or lighter than this magazine?

Several students:

Heavier!

Ms. Soto:

Good! Now what's another question you could ask to help us estimate its weight?

Ms. Soto:

Good! Now what's another question you could ask to help us estimate its weight?

Amanda:

You could ask if it's heavier or lighter than a student dictionary, and it's lighter.

[The conversation continues, and students practice estimating the relative heights and volumes of different objects.]

Ms. Soto:

So for each of the endangered animals you research, you will be responsible for helping us understand its height and weight in terms of estimation based on things that we already know. For example, an African elephant can weigh more than four tons and stand twelve feet tall. In terms that we can understand, that's the weight of three average-sized cars and the height of a tall man standing on the shoulders of another tall man.

Which of the following excerpts from the discussion best indicates that Ms. Soto adjusted instruction based on students' needs?

A. Yes, that's correct. You give an educated guess.

B. ...but what can you tell me about its weight?

C. ...we are going to use estimation to help others understand...

D. ...is the textbook heavier or lighter than this magazine? ;