Exploring Creation with Physical Science Module 16 Study Guide 2
Terms in this set (32)
Module 16 Study Guide
1. a Nuclear fusion
The process by which two or more small nuclei fuse to make a bigger nucleus
1.b Nuclear fission
The process by which a large nucleus is split into two smaller nuclei
1.c Critical mass
The amount of isotope necessary to cause a chain reaction
1.d Absolute Magnitude
1.e Apparent Magnitude
1.f Light year
The distance light travels in one year
2. From the inside to the outside, name the four regions of the sun.
core, radiative zone, convection zone, photosphere
3. How does the sun get its power? In which region of the sun does this process occur?
nuclear fusion in the core.
4. What part of the sun do we see?
5. A 251Cf nucleus is bombarded with a neutron. It breaks down into a 124 Sn nucleus, a 120 Cd nucleus and seven neutrons. Is this nuclear fission or nuclear fusion?
6. Two 4 He nuclei collide and turn into a 7 Be nucleus and one neutron. Is this nuclear fusion or nuclear fission?
7. For both the nuclear fusion that occurs in the sun and the nuclear fission that occurs in a nuclear power plant, what can we say about the mass of the starting materials compared to the mass of what's made in the end?
The mass of the starting materials is larger than the mass of what is made in the end
8. Why is it impossible for a nuclear power plant to have a nuclear explosion?
a nuclear power plant does not have a critical mass
9. Why is nuclear fusion considered a better option for energy production compared to nuclear fission?
Nuclear fusion has no harmful byproducts, it is much safer and easier to stop, and the fuel for it is very cheap and almost unlimited.
10. If nuclear fusion is a better option, why don't we use it?
The process for making nuclear fusion occur has not yet been mastered.
1. g Galaxy
A massive ensemble of hundreds of millions of stars, all interacting through the gravitational force, orbiting around a common center
11. Using the H-R Diagram on bottom of page 421 of text book, classify the following stars:
a. Magnitude -1, Spectral Letter K
b. Magnitude 0, Spectral Letter B
c. Magnitude -7, Spectral Letter F
d. Magnitude 11, Spectral Letter B
12. Which of the stars in #11 is most like our sun?
13. Order the four stars in #11 in terms of increasing size.
14. Order the the four stars in #11 in terms of increasing brightness.
15. Which of the stars in #11 is the coolest?
16. What similarity exists between novas, supernovas, and pulsating variables?
They all have to do with changing brightness
17. What is the big difference between novas, supernovas, and pulsating variables?
The big difference is lifetime. Pulsating variables last a long time, supernovas last a short time, and novas last somewhere in between.
18. What most likely formed the crab nebula?
A nebula is the debris left from a supernova.
19. What are the two methods for measuring the distance from earth to a star? Which of the two is the most accurate? Which can be used to measure long distances?
The parallax method and the apparent magnitude method. The parallax method is the most accurate. The apparent magnitude method can be used to measure long distances.
20. Why are Cepheid variables so important for measuring long distances in the universe?
Cepheid variables are important because they seem to have a relationship between their period and their magnitude. That allows them to be used in the apparent magnitude method for measuring long distances in the universe.
21. What are the four basic types of galaxies? To which type does the Milky Way galaxy belong?
spiral, lenticular, elliptical, irregular
22. Fill in the blanks: Stars group together to form_________, which group together to form___________, which group together to form_____________, some of which group together to form_________________.
23. For the first three answers you gave in #22, give the names that apply to those in which earth's solar system belongs.
24. Why do most astronomers believe the universe is expanding?
25. If the universe is expanding, does the geometry of the expansion matter? If so, why?
Yes. The theories that can be developed for the formation of the universe depend on that initial assumption.