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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
History 2300 ho1
Terms in this set (44)
Plan for civil war proposed by general-in-chief Winfield Scott, which emphasized the blockade of Southern ports and called for an advance down the Mississippi River the cut the South in two, the plan would suffocate the South
General Winfield Scott
United States general who was a hero of the War of 1812 and who defeated Santa Anna in the Mexican War (1786-1866). Lost to democrat Franklin Pierce.
Battle of First Manassas/First Battle of Bull Run
the first battle of the Civil War, it took place on July 2, 1861 at Manassas Junction, VA at which surprised Union troops retreated, it showed that the war was not going to be one quick clean battle, Confederate General Beauregard- Important railroad center on road to Richmond. Confederates send reinforcements-Stonewall Jackson. Union Defeat- Shows that union=Not prepared, war is going to be long, and they need more troops.
-South calls it "Manassas"
-North calls it "Bull Run"
General Irvin McDowell
-General that led 35,000 Union troops in an 1861 attempt to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia and was defeated by Stonewall Jackson and the Confederates near Manassas at the Battle of Bull Run.
-Advanced across Bull Run against the equally unseasoned Confederate Army under Brig. Gens. Joseph E. Johnston and P.G.T. Beauregard, and despite the Union's early successes, they were routed and forced to retreat back to Washington, D.C.
General P.G.T. Beauregard
Commander of the Confederate forces at Charleston, he was ordered by the new Confederate govt. to take fort Sumter. When Anderson refused to give up, the Confederates attacked for two days straight until Anderson surrendered.
General Thomas Jonathan Jackson (Stonewall Jackson)
Confederate commander who helped the South win Bull Run. Nicknamed the "Stonewall" and soldiers under his command were called "foot calvary." Troops at the first Battle of Bull Run stood like a stone wall (1824-1863)
General George McClellan
General for northern command of the Army of Potomac in 1861. President Lincoln appointed him commander of Union forces in 1861. After months of preparation however, his army was defeated by Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army in the Peninsular Campaign of 1862. His egotism and overcautiousness cost the Union the chance to end the Civil War quickly and finally forced President Abraham Lincoln to relieve him of command after Antietam in 1862. Thereafter, he identified with the political opposition to Lincoln and in 1864 ran unsuccessfully for president as a Democrat. Nicknamed "Tardy George" because of his failure to move troops to Richmond; lost battle vs. General Lee near the Chesapeake Bay
The Union's grand plan for victory early on in the war. The basis of this plan was to capture Richmond so as to stop the war as early as possible.
a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. The operation, commanded by Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, was an amphibious turning movement intended to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond by circumventing the Confederate States Army in northern Virginia. McClellan was initially successful against the equally cautious General Joseph E. Johnston, but the emergence of General Robert E. Lee changed the character of the campaign and turned it into a humiliating Union defeat.
War of Attrition
You have to kill enough enemy soldiers so that they cannot rebuild a new army.
Battle of Second Manassas
Culmination of offensive campaign by Robert E. Lee. An overwhelming victory
Nathan Bedford Forrest
General Forrest may have been one of the most respected cavalrymen of the Civil War, but his legend is marred by his racism. Before the Civil War, Forrest was a slave trader, and after the war he became one of the first Grand Wizards of the Ku Klux Klan.
Union steamship captured by the Confederates and turned into and ironclad, renamed the Virginia, was easily able to sink wooden warships with minor damage
Union ironclad built by John Ericsson, had a revolving gun tower, carried powerful guns and had think plating, was able to force the Confederate ironclad to withdraw from Hampton roads and allowed the Union fleet to continue a blockade
A Swedish inventor and mechanical engineer living during the 19th century. He designed the U.S.S Monitor, starting the line of Monitor type warships. Later, he also designed a torpedo and Destroyer type ship.
Monitor vs Merrimack
A naval engagement of the Civil War, fought in 1862 off the coast of Virginia between two ironclad ships, the Union Monitor and the Confederate Virginia (which had been built on the hull of the U.S.S
Lincoln's 11 year old son that died by typhoid fever
A group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War
Also known as Peace Democrats, these were northern Democrats who were opposed to the Civil War. They were outraged at the high taxes, inflation, death tolls, emancipation, and war in general. They opposed Lincoln and compared him to a king or dictator. They were also believed to be involved with the confederacy and were betraying the Union.
Battle of Antietam
Bloodiest day in American History. The Battle was fought during the U.S Civil War. General Robert E. Lee's army of Northern Virginia fought against Union army of the Potomac commanded by McClellan. Lee was defeated by McClellan and Lincoln brought forth plans of emancipation.
Launched the American Red Cross in 1881. An "angel" in the Civil War, she treated the wounded in the field.
Battle of Vicksburg
Occurred on July 4th, 1863. As a result of this battle, Vicksburg, Mississippi fell to General Ulysses S. Grant and his army. After two months of siege, the Battle of Vicksburg was a turning point in the war because it gave the Union control of the Mississippi.
Battle at Gettysburg
Civil War battle in Pennsylvania that ended in Union victory, spelling doom for the Confederacy, which never again managed to invade the North. Site of General George Pickett's daring but doomed charge on the Northern lines. (492)
William Lloyd Garrison
A militant abolitionist, he came editor of the Boston publication, The Liberator, in 1831. Under his leadership, The Liberator gained national fame and notoriety due to his quotable and inflammatory language, attacking everything from slave holders to moderate abolitionists, and advocating northern secession.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
She wrote the abolitionist book, Uncle Tom's Cabin. It helped to crystallize the rift between the North and South. It has been called the greatest American propaganda novel ever written, and helped to bring about the Civil War.
American abolitionist. Born a slave on a Maryland plantation, she escaped to the North in 1849 and became the most renowned conductor on the Underground Railroad, leading more than 300 slaves to freedom.
American abolitionist and writer, he escaped slavery and became a leading African American spokesman and writer. He published the autobiography, The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, and founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star.
General George Meade (Snapping Turtle)
During the American Civil War he served as a Union general, rising from command of a brigade to the Army of the Potomac. He is best known for defeating Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863.
General Robert E. Lee
Confederate General and commander of Confederate Army, known for strategic genius. Was against secession but very loyal to his state of Virginia. Ended the war with surrender at Appomattox.
Battle of Chancellorsville
In Virginia where Lee daringly divided his numerically inferior army and sent Stonewall Jackson to attack the Union flank. This was successful strategy as it was one of the Confederates most successful victories of the war. However, during the battle Jackson was shot and killed by friendly fire which depleted the moral of the confederate force.
Burning of Atlanta
Sherman took the city of Atlanta. The residents burned it but Sherman's soldiers further destroyed it. The army made an act of "Total War" marching from Atlanta to Savannah in a 50 mile wide path of total destruction.
General Sherman and his troops set the city of Atlanta on fire, in order to destroy the confederate's supply lines and then Marched to the Sea, Savannah, and burnt everything along the way
Election of 1864
In this election, five political parties supported candidates for the presidency. They included the War Democrats, Peace Democrats, Copperheads, Radical Republicans, and the National Union Party. Each political party offered a different point of view on how the war should be run and what should be done to the Confederate states after the war. The National Union Party joined with Lincoln won the election on the recent northern victories against the South.
54th Massachusetts Regiment
Best well known African American regiment that were the front line in the assault on the fort Wagner in S.C. With the causalities of 300. Known for their bravery and sacrifice of its members
Colonel Robert Shaw
Union Colonel who commanded the all-black 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment. He was killed in the Second Battle of Fort Wagner, near Charleston, SC.
General Joseph Hooker
A major general in the Union Army. Hooker is best remembered for his stunning defeat by Confederate General Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Chancellorsville in 1863. He became known as "Fighting Joe" during the Civil War due to civilian clerical error, however the nickname stuck.
3rd day of Gettysburg, Lee asked Pickett to lead troops on a mile and a half run where they were then slaughtered by the union army. Confederate charge during Gettysburg against the Union line that was a disaster. Fewer than half of his men made it to the top of the ridge. Turning point of Gettysburg Battle.
Siege of Vicksburg
The final major military action in the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War.
First attacked by Ulysses S. Grant in April, the important river city of Vicksburg, Mississippi fell under the control of the Union. The siege lasted 47 days and began in May. Shortly after, The Confederacy lost Port Hudson in Louisiana. The Union had finally split the South in two.
General William T. Sherman
Union General who was involved in the first battle of bull run, battle of Shiloh, and Vicksburg campaign, also led the march to sea and the "total war."
General Philip Sheridan
General who led Union forces into the Shenandoah Valley. Helped force Robert E. Lee to surrender.
(1863) a speech given by Abraham Lincoln after the Battle of Gettysburg, in which he praised the bravery of Union soldiers and renewed his commitment to winning the Civil War; supported the ideals of self-government and human rights
Leader of Freedman's Bureau
A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
Ulysses S. Grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War. He received a field promotion to lieutenant general in charge of all Union forces. He accepted General Robert E. Lee's surrender at Appomattox Courthouse ending the Civil War
Battle of the Ironclads
March 1862, the Monitor which is a Union ship, and the Merrimack ship which is now a Confederate ship but was an Union ship. The Merrimack started to attack two wooden ships and the Monitor stepped in and start fighting with each other but was left to a draw.
General Joshua Chamberlain
former language professor, sent with 20th Maine to defend Little Round Top, from 16th Alabama, considered a war hero because Little Round Top was the hill that lead to the other hills the Union were on, saved the Union from defeat.
Little Round Top
The hill that Confederates attempted to capture for a high ground advantage, and was also defended by Chamberlain's troops. If it were not for Chamberlain, the South would've won Gettysburg and maybe the war.
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