Social Psychology: The Self
Learning about the Self
the collection of beliefs we hold about ourselves
the value one places on oneself
how a person acquires the rules, standards, and values of his or her family, group, and culture
self-evaluation based on the perceptions and evaluations of others.
idea that people sometimes infer their attitudes from their overt behavior, rather than from their own internal state.
the act of comparing one's abilities, opinions, or emotions with those of another person or persons
the part of an individual's self-concept that derives from his or her membership in a social group.
working knowledge and appreciation of two cultures.
the sense of oneself as bounded, unitary, and separate from the social context.
the sense of self as flexible, variable, and connected to the social context.
the sense of self as bounded, unique, and independent.
how one thinks about one's personal qualities in aparticular life domain
schemas that people hold concerning what they may or could become in the future
discrepancies between how we perceive ourselves and how we would ideally like to be or believe others think we should be
the personal attributes one would like to have
the personal attributes one believes on should possess.
the ways people control and direct their own actions.
those aspects of the self-concept that are salient in a particular situation.
more general view of one's abilities, motives, and performance
the number of dimensions that people use to think about themselves
specific expectations about our abilities to accomplish certain tasks.
experiencing oneself as an object of one's own attention.
cybernetic theory of self-regulation
people compare their behavior to a standard, decide that it matches the standard or does not, and continue to adjust their behavior until a match is made or they give up.
a tendency to be concerned with how one appears to others
a tendency to focus on the internal self
seeking out and interpreting situations that confirm one's self-concept. (this is who I am)
The need to hold a positive view of oneself
mild, falsely positive self-enhancing perceptions of one's personal qualities.
people cope with specific threats to their self-worth by reaffirming unrelated aspects of themselves. (Claude Steele)
Self-evaluation Maintenance theory
reacting to the success of others with pride (basking in reflective glory) or discontent (suffering by comparison) and consequent efforts to restore a sense of self
when another person outperforms us on a behavior that is relevant to our self definition, the greater the threat to our self evaluation
when another person outperforms us on a behavior that is not relevant to our self definition, we feel pride in their success.
social comparison theory
idea that people are driven to evaluate themselves through comparisons with other people.
downward social comparisons
comparing one's traits or abilities with someone who is worse off than oneself
upward social comparisons
comparing one's traits or abilities with someone who is better off than oneself.
similarity to another person on attributes related to a target attribute, such as background or preparation.
deliberate efforts to act in ways that create a particular impression of the self.
conveying positive information about oneself to others.
flattering or doing favors for a person to get that person to like you or to do things for you
engaging in actions that provide obstacles to success, so that failure can later be attributed to these obstacles.