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40 terms

Social Psychology: The Self

Learning about the Self
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self-concept
the collection of beliefs we hold about ourselves
self-esteem
the value one places on oneself
socialization
how a person acquires the rules, standards, and values of his or her family, group, and culture
reflected appraisals
self-evaluation based on the perceptions and evaluations of others.
self-perception theory
idea that people sometimes infer their attitudes from their overt behavior, rather than from their own internal state.
social comparison
the act of comparing one's abilities, opinions, or emotions with those of another person or persons
social identity
the part of an individual's self-concept that derives from his or her membership in a social group.
bicultural competence
working knowledge and appreciation of two cultures.
independent self
the sense of oneself as bounded, unitary, and separate from the social context.
interdependent self
the sense of self as flexible, variable, and connected to the social context.
independent self
the sense of self as bounded, unique, and independent.
self-schemas
how one thinks about one's personal qualities in aparticular life domain
possible selves
schemas that people hold concerning what they may or could become in the future
self-discrepancies
discrepancies between how we perceive ourselves and how we would ideally like to be or believe others think we should be
ideal self
the personal attributes one would like to have
ought self
the personal attributes one believes on should possess.
self-regulation
the ways people control and direct their own actions.
working self-concept
those aspects of the self-concept that are salient in a particular situation.
stable self-concept
more general view of one's abilities, motives, and performance
self-complexity
the number of dimensions that people use to think about themselves
self-efficacy
specific expectations about our abilities to accomplish certain tasks.
self-awarness
experiencing oneself as an object of one's own attention.
cybernetic theory of self-regulation
people compare their behavior to a standard, decide that it matches the standard or does not, and continue to adjust their behavior until a match is made or they give up.
public self-consciousness
a tendency to be concerned with how one appears to others
private self-consciousness
a tendency to focus on the internal self
self-verification
seeking out and interpreting situations that confirm one's self-concept. (this is who I am)
self-enhancement
The need to hold a positive view of oneself
positive illusions
mild, falsely positive self-enhancing perceptions of one's personal qualities.
self-affirmation
people cope with specific threats to their self-worth by reaffirming unrelated aspects of themselves. (Claude Steele)
Self-evaluation Maintenance theory
reacting to the success of others with pride (basking in reflective glory) or discontent (suffering by comparison) and consequent efforts to restore a sense of self
comparison effect
when another person outperforms us on a behavior that is relevant to our self definition, the greater the threat to our self evaluation
reflection effect
when another person outperforms us on a behavior that is not relevant to our self definition, we feel pride in their success.
social comparison theory
idea that people are driven to evaluate themselves through comparisons with other people.
downward social comparisons
comparing one's traits or abilities with someone who is worse off than oneself
upward social comparisons
comparing one's traits or abilities with someone who is better off than oneself.
related-attributes similarity
similarity to another person on attributes related to a target attribute, such as background or preparation.
self-presentation
deliberate efforts to act in ways that create a particular impression of the self.
self-promotion
conveying positive information about oneself to others.
ingratiation
flattering or doing favors for a person to get that person to like you or to do things for you
self-handicapping
engaging in actions that provide obstacles to success, so that failure can later be attributed to these obstacles.