Biology ch. 18 review


Terms in this set (...)

The study of the interaction of living organisms with each other and with their physical environment
A group of organisms of different species living together in a particular place
An ecosystem consists of a community of _______, energy, and the soil, ______ and the wether
Organisms, water
The quality that all organisms are linked together in a network of interactions
Ecological models are useful for ________ & _______ predictions about future ecological changes and evaluating proposed solutions to environmental problems
Interactions, accurate
The specific physical location in which a given species lives
The areas of an organisms tolerance curve that like at the extreme high or low for an environmental veritable represent the zones of _______ performance by the organism
List three ways that organisms deal with unfavorable environmental conditions
Possible answers- homeostasis, escape their environments, dormancy, migration
An organisms niche includes
-What, where, and when it eats
-humidity/temperatures/conditions it prefers
- when it reproduces/number of offspring
-resources it uses
-method of obtaining resources
-other interactions with its environment
A description of an organisms niche would include its ______ level, the ______ & temperature it prefers and when it reproduces
Acclimation, environment
Species with narrow niches are called ______
The study of how organisms interact with each other and their environment
An ecosystem consists of a living and ______ environment
Non living
The physical area which an organism lives is its _____
An ecological model is limited in its application because no model can account for every ______ in an environment
Organisms that do not regulate their internal conditions (don't use energy) (lizards, reptiles)
Organisms that do regulate their internal conditions (use energy) (mammals and birds)
The niche of an organism includes its ______, it's _____ habits, and other aspects of its ______, and it's ______ with other organisms and the environment
Habitat, feeding, biology, interactions
Levels of organization
Biosphere - ecosystem - community - population - organism
Biotic factors
All living things that effect the given organism
Abiotic factors
All non-living things that effect the given organism
Organisms adjusting their tolerance to abiotic factors
A way of life or role for an organism in an ecosystem
a state of reduced activity
Moving to a more favorable habitat
Autotrophs, organisms that make their own food
Gross primary productivity
The rate which producers capture energy of sunlight by producing organic compounds
Process which chemotrpohs use energy stored in inorganic molecules to produce carbohydrates
The organic material that has been produced in an ecosystem
Net primary productivity =
Gross primary productivity - respiration =
Obtain energy by eating other organisms. Include herbivores, omnivores, carnivores, detrivores, and decomposers
Food chain
A single pathway of energy transfer
Food web
Network showing all paths of energy transfer
Trophic level
Indicates an organisms position in energy transfer
Biogeochemical cycle
Substances passed through living and nonliving worlds
Water in the soil or underground formations of porous rock
Water cycle
The movement of water between various reservoirs
Key processes in the water cycle
Evaporation, transpiration, precipitation
Nitrogen cycle
Nitrogen fixing bacteria change nitrogen gas into a useable form of nitrogen for plants to use
Phosphorous cycle
Phosphorous moves from phasphate deposited in rock,