EXAM 3 STUDY QUESTIONS
Terms in this set (63)
The characteristic features of personality disorders tend to develop with a
chronic pattern with onset in childhood
2. Which set of adjective pairs correctly describes the clusters into which DSM-5 personality disorders are grouped?
odd/eccentric, dramatic/emotional, and anxious/fearful
3. According to the definition of personality disorder, only individuals who show _____________ patterns of maladaptive behavior or emotional distress as a result of their actions should be diagnose with a personality disorder.
In the U.S., the prevalence of a diagnosable personality disorder is estimated to be around _________ adults.
1 out of every 10
Gender differences observed in the prevalence of many personality disorders (i.e., borderline for women, antisocial for men) may be due to
all of the above
A person with paranoid personality disorder may
all of the above.
An adult diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder is most likely to have met the criteria for __________________ as a child.
With which of the following personality disorders is the term psychopath closely associated?
The disorder that shares many similar symptoms with schizophrenia is ___________________ personality disorder.
The personality disorder characterized by extreme instability in behavior and emotion, impulsivity, depression, and self-injurious behaviors are _______________ personality disorder.
Research regarding psychological treatment for borderline personality disorder suggests that ____________________ appears to be helpful in improving mood and reducing suicidal and self-injurious behaviors.
dialectical behavior therapy
The personality disorder characterized by unreasonable fear of abandonment, fear of being rejected, avoidance of disagreement, inability to make decisions for oneself, and clinging behavior is _____________ personality disorder.
Narcissistic personality disorder is characterized by
thinking of oneself as deserving of special treatment.
All of the following are necessary conditions for the diagnosis of a personality disorder EXCEPT
patient feelings of distress (includes chronic course of behavior, maladaptive functioning, pervasive pattern of behavior.
When someone has a personality disorder,
the person may believe there is nothing wrong with them.
You are waiting to board a plane when you hear that the flight has been delayed due to a passing thunderstorm. The man sitting next to you says, "Passing thunder storm, sure! That's Jim again; he's been doing everything to make me miss this meeting because he's trying to get me fired!" Of the following, this statement would be most consistent with ________________ personality disorder.
Theo is quite a loner. He walks to class by himself, does not talk to anyone, and appears indifferent to other people. It is clear that Theo neither desires nor enjoys closeness with others. He does not act in any obviously unusual ways, nor does he appear to possess strange beliefs about the world. Of the following personality disorders, Theo appears to be
Cluster B personality disorders tend to be characterized by
Steve steals money from his friends and family, lies to get what he wants, and often hurts others with no sign of guilt or remorse. Steve should probably be diagnosed with __________________ personality disorder.
Which of the following is the most likely model to explain the cause of borderline personality disorder?
Biological predisposition interacting with life events such as childhood trauma and later life stressors.
Nicole has difficulty maintaining relationships because she goes back and forth from being a best friend to hating people in her life quite often. Her romantic relationships re always characterized by incredible loving passion alternating with episodes of horrible fighting, and sometimes she becomes violent. At times Nicole becomes so upset that she cuts herself and reports that this makes her feel better emotionally. Nicole suffers from ________________ personality disorder.
Which of the following characterize the disorder known as schizophrenia?
All of these (delusions and hallucinations, inappropriate emotions, disorganized speech and behavior)
Which of the following is accurate in regard to the long-term outlook for schizophrenia patients?
Complete recovery from schizophrenia is rare.
Which of the following is the persecution type of psychotic delusion?
people are out to get you
Which of the following describes delusion grandeur?
one is a famous or important person
The most common type of hallucination experienced by psychotic individuals is
Which of the following is the most accurate definition of flat affect?
A lack of emotional response, blank facial expression.
The positive symptoms of schizophrenia are most closely associated with _____________ activity.
Which of the following statements are true?
High expressed emotion in a family is a good predictor of relapse among chronic schizophrenics.
All of the following are typical behaviors for children with autistic disorder EXCEPT
performing complex math calculations that appear well beyond their abilities.
Most autistic individuals develop symptoms of the disorder
before age three.
32. The ability to perform "computer-like" mathematical calculations and other incredible skills that are sometimes associated with autistic individuals (such as the character in the movie Rain Man) are
not typical of the disorder
An appropriate treatment goal for an individual with mild or moderate intellectual disability is
improve abilities to care for self.
Down syndrome is caused by
an extra 21st chromosome.
35. A woman diagnosed as schizophrenic announces that she has a plan to end poverty and homelessness in the world and that the Pope has given her secret instructions on how this can be accomplished. Her thinking is indicative of a delusion of ___________.
Research using brain-imaging techniques has localized auditory hallucinations in the part of the brain called
At various times, individuals have been arrested for stalking celebrities who they believe were in love with them. This condition is called a(n) ______________ delusion.
The negative schizophrenic symptom called anhedonia is defined as inability
inability to experience pleasure.
Mort has displayed a number of schizophrenic symptoms. An obvious one was his lack of speech content manifested in nonsensical ramblings and slowed speech response. This symptom is called
The major reason that developmental disorders are considered to be so serious in terms of their capacity to disrupt later functioning is
that failure to develop at one level is thought to inhibit later stages of development.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of ADHD?
What are the three types of symptoms for attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder?
Hyperactivity, impulsivity, inattention
The hypothesis that attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be influenced by toxins, food additives, or diet
has little to no scientific evidence.
One of the most characteristic patterns for children with autistic disorder is that they are generally
uninterested in people.
Ron is a 9-year-old boy recently with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. His parents have chosen a combined approach to treatment. If their approach is based on what research suggests is most effective, it will most likely involve
medication such as Ritalin and behavior therapy.
A specific learning disorder is defined as
academic performance that is substantially below the level predicted by the individual's age, IQ, and education.
Impaired consciousness and cognition during the course of several hours of days defines
Which of the following is NOT a typical cause of delirium?
All of the following are possible causes of dementia EXCEPT
food additives and preservatives
Which of the following is TRUE of major neurocognitive disorder?
Major neurocognitive disorder rates are increasing as people live longer.
Which of the following environmental stressors appears to be a significant factor in the later development of neurocognitive disorder (including that caused by Alzheimer's disease)?
Repeated head trauma
An individual with an IQ score of 35 would be classified with ________________ intellectual disability.
Intellectual disability is defined as
involves both intellectual and adaptive functioning deficits in conceptual, social, and practical domains. (got from lecture outline**)
The goal of most modern therapy for people with autistic disorder is to
integrate the autistic child into regular society as much as possible.
The restricted pattern of behavior generally observed in autistic disorder involves
Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities (found in lecture, not 100% sure if this is the answer***)
Toward the end of the 19th century, Emil Kraeplin, studying the disorder we now call schizophrenia, used the term ________________ because he observed that the onset of symptoms often occurred before adulthood.
Modern treatment programs for autistic disorder generally involve
all of these
According to the textbook, a possible cause of schizotypal personality disorder is
all of these
Criminal behavior by individuals with antisocial personality disorder tends to _________________ after the age of 40.
9. In Jill's psychotherapy sessions, the therapist has been using techniques to gradually make her more comfortable with social situations. Similar to the treatments used for individuals with social phobia, the therapist has given Jill homework assignments that require her to practice talking to strangers, join informal groups, and speak in front of small groups. Most likely, she is being treated for ____________________ personality disorder.
Describe the similarities and differences between individuals with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and individuals diagnosed with the anxiety disorder called obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OC PD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) are very commonly confused. While OC PD is a personality disorder that is chronic, OCD is an anxiety disorder that alters over time. With OCD the anxiety disorder, you experience frequent obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are unwanted thoughts, ideas, or images that feel as if they're nearly impossible to clear from ones mind. These get to be so miserable that they then use compulsions to try and rid them. Compulsions are things that they feel they must do over and over to take away the anxiety they have or end a feared situation. These compulsions tend to be unrealistic ways to resolve their issues in the end but they feel the need to do so anyway. Those with OC PD have a maladaptive pattern of dealing with other people and life challenges. People with OC PD feel as if they need to be in control and also strive for perfection. They are most often extremely devoted to work to the point where they will let it affect them relationships. Both of these tend to do similar things that revolve around being orderly, clean, and feeling the need to perfect things. Though each do this for different reasons, those with OC PD do these things to benefit themselves while people with OCD are typically distressed and feel as if they have to carry out these rituals.
Describe some of the "positive" and "negative" symptoms of schizophrenia. Explain what is meant by these terms and how they relate to prognosis and outcome.
Schizophrenia is psychotic disorder in which one deals with cognitive and emotional dysfunctions. These include hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech and behavior, and inappropriate emotions. This is generally a chronic disorder that causes lifetime impairments. Positive symptoms of Schizophrenia include excess or an addition of normal behavior, while negative symptoms are the absence of normal behaviors. Delusions, such as believing what others are saying is not true is an example of a positive symptom. Hallucinations and disorganized speech and behavior are also positive symptoms of this disorder. Negative symptoms can include apathy or lack of feeling/ emotion and lowered ability to feel pleasure, which is also known as anhedonia. Additionally, the absence of speech or alogia and affective flattening, which is characterized by lowered expression of emotions, are also examples of negative symptoms.
Describe the symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and discuss the controversy surrounding this diagnosis.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD, is a common mental disorder that makes it difficult for a person to focus and pay attention. It is also difficult for them to sit still for even a short period of time. Additionally, they tend to act before thinking through things. Those with this disorder are very distracted, may talk very loud, and also tend to be angrier than one should. Many believe that ADHD is a controversial topic. There aren't physical tests that can be done to test whether one has this disorder. Other health issues that might seem to be ADHD at the time could also cause the symptoms of ADHD. Lastly, it is hard to say where one draws the line, anyone can have problems with self-control to a certain degree.