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Terms in this set (138)
Also known as the mutual exclusivity assumption, refers to the principle by which children assume that an object can only have one label. This assumption can sometimes pose difficulty as children learn that an object can have many labels.
Children learn much - probably most - of their vocabulary indirectly,
without explicit instruction. When shown a shoe (an object with a known label) and a whisk (an as-yet unnamed object), for
example, and asked to select the whisk, children usually respond correctly:
they infer that the whisk is called a whisk, even though no one explicitly
labeled the item for them
Labels should be extended to an object of the same kind rather than an object that is thematically related (Ellen Markman).
Whole Object Assumption
Words refer to an object rather than to its parts or features.
Stages of Spelling Development
The child uses symbols from the alphabet but shows no knowledge of letter-sound correspondences. The child may also lack knowledge of the entire alphabet, the distinction between upper- and lower-case letters, and the left-to-right direction of English orthography.
The child begins to understand letter-sound correspondence ? that sounds are assigned to letters. At this stage, the child often employs rudimentary logic, using single letters, for example, to represent words, sounds, and syllables (e.g., U for you)
The child uses a letter or group of letters to represent every speech sound that they hear in a word. Although some of their choices do not conform to conventional English spelling, they are systematic and easily understood. Examples are KOM for come and EN for in.
The speller begins to assimilate the conventional alternative for representing sounds, moving from a dependence on phonology (sound) for representing words to a reliance on visual representation and an understanding of the structure of words. Some examples are EGUL for eagle and HIGHEKED for hiked.
The speller knows the English orthographic system and its basic rules. The correct speller fundamentally understands how to deal with such things as prefixes and suffixes, silent consonants, alternative spellings, and irregular spellings. A large number of learned words are accumulated, and the speller recognizes incorrect forms. The child's generalizations about spelling and knowledge of exceptions are usually correct.
Portfolio Based Assessment
Shows student progress over time. It might include: samples of daily work, a chart of reading rates from several grades, journal entries by student or teacher, test results and benchmark inventories.
Standardized tests that are designed to compare and rank test takers in relation to one another. Norm-referenced tests report whether test takers performed better or worse than a hypothetical average student, which is determined by comparing scores against the performance results of a statistically selected group of test takers, typically of the same age or grade level, who have already taken the exam.
Designed to measure student performance against a fixed set of predetermined criteria or learning standards—i.e., concise, written descriptions of what students are expected to know and be able to do at a specific stage of their education. In elementary and secondary education, criterion-referenced tests are used to evaluate whether students have learned a specific body of knowledge or acquired a specific skill set.
Stanine Scores (STAndard NINE)
A method of scaling test scores on a nine-point standard scale with a mean of five and a standard deviation of two.
Round Robin Reading Group
Asking students to read in turn and sentence by sentence. Can be very threatening for various levels of readers. No recommended for a multi-level reading exercise.
An interactive reading experience that occurs when students join in or share the reading of a big book or other enlarged text while guided and supported by a teacher or other experienced reader. Students observe an expert reading the text with fluency
and expression. Multi-level reading activity in which all students can participate.
ERT (Everybody Read To...)
Asks students to read silently or quietly with purpose to a particular place. Then the teacher guides the students as they figure out the meaning of the text together. Even struggling readers will find some answers as they review the text with the group. "...to find out why sharks bite" "...to find out where sharks live."
A cooperative learning strategy in which two students work together to read an assigned text. Allows students to take turns reading and provide each other with feedback as a way to monitor comprehension. Can be used for a multi-level exercises when the teacher is judicious in choosing materials and partners.
Will help the student locate references to his topic in the text. He can then read the reference and choose those which relate to his report. A book's index can be thought of as its "search engine."
The Table of Contents
The Book's Preface
Finding The Central Angle
measure of section x 360
For ex: section of hens is 20%, what is the measure of the central angle?
.20 x 360 = 72
Occur if the sum of the measures of two angles is 90 degrees.
Occur if the sum of the measures of two angles is 180 degrees
A line that passes through two lines in the same plane at two distinct points.
The basic building block of intelligent behavior - a way of organizing knowledge. "Units" of knowledge each relating one aspect of the world, including objects, actions and abstract (i.e. theoretical) concepts. A set of linked mental representations of the world, which we use both to understand and to respond to situations.
Adaption (adjustment) to the world
Which is using an existing schema to deal with a new object or situation.
EX: Boy sees man with hair only on the sides of his head and assumes that he is a clown.
This happens when the existing schema (knowledge) does not work, and needs to be changed to deal with a new object or situation.
EX: When the boy makes a wrong assumption about the man he thinks is a clown, his father explains to him that since the man didn't have makeup and a funny suit, he is not a clown.
The force which drives the learning process as we do not like to be frustrated and will seek to restore balance by mastering the new challenge (accommodation). Once the new information is acquired the process of assimilation with the new schema will continue until the next time we need to make an adjustment to it.
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
Concrete Operational Stage
Formal Operational Stage
Sensorimotor Stage (birth-2yrs)
Main objective is object permanence - knowing that an object still exists, even if it is hidden. It requires the ability to form a mental representation (i.e. a schema) of the object.
Pre-Operational Stage (2-7 years)
During this stage, young children are able to think about things symbolically. This is the ability to make one thing - a word or an object - stand for something other than itself. Thinking is still egocentric; the infant has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others
Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years)
Marks the beginning of logical or operational thought. The child can work things out internally in their head (rather than physically try things out in the real world).
Formal Operational Stage (11 years and older)
People develop the ability to think about abstract concepts, and logically test hypotheses.
Telling time at 5 minute intervals and estimating elapsed time
Accurately telling time at the 5 minutes
Computing time in various time zones
What rights did the Constitution give to the Congress?
I. The power to regulate commerce between states
II The power to regulate trade with foreign countries
III The power to pass laws with a simple majority
A child's ability to be aware of their behaviors and actions.
EX: Realizing that he is talking too loud and adjusting his volume.
What separates Europe and Asia?
A combination of mountains, seas, rivers and straits; the boundary of Europe and Asia is set by the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian Sea, The Caucasus Mountains, the Black Sea, the Bosporus Strait, the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles Strait. Since it is difficult to align this with the definition of a continent, some geographers refer to it as Eurasia
The alternative choice that must be given up when scarce resources are used for another purpose
"Children of the Sun"; controlled a large area of South America stretching from Ecuador to Chile. They were sun worshipers. They were at the apex of their power when conquered by the Spanish conquistadors.
Research about how culture influences learning indicates...
That it can influence his learning in school. Styles of teaching and learning may differ at home or in the home country. Different cultures expect different behaviors from children asking or answering questions
The Scientific Method
A process of observation and analysis used to develop reliable, consistent and objective representation and understanding of our world.
The moon is located between the Earth and sun and is described as the dark side of the moon being turned toward Earth.
The moon is semi-circular and can be seen from Earth
One week after the semi-circular moon appears, almost one-half of the moon is visible
Almost the whole moon is available several days after the half moon.
Significant Figures of a Number
Digits that carry meaning contributing to its measurement resolution. This includes all digits except: All leading zeros; Trailing zeros when they are merely placeholders to indicate the scale of the number
High Barometric Pressure Indicates
Good weather is on the way, because the air is generally sinking slowly. As air sinks, it warms, preventing clouds from forming, and it means that highs are generally clear.
The process of shooting the same picture in the same lighting, using a variety of exposure settings.
A brownish-orange earthenware clay used in ceramic sculpture. It is less expensive and easier to work with than most other sculpture materials. Associated with ceramic sculptures.
Functions are performed via one of two divisions: somatic (voluntary) and autonomic (involuntary). Sends signals from the brain to other parts of the body.
Receives and processes food; This includes the mouth, esophagus, and stomach among other things.
Responsible for internal transport within the body; flow of blood, hormones, oxygen, gases, and etc.
Defends the body against foreign proteins and infectious microorganisms.
Involves using the whole body rhythmic movements as a way to interpret music.
Judgments about the beauty or ugliness of an object.
Physical and biological features of designated or proposed critical habitat essential to the conservation of the species, including, but not limited to: (1) space for individual and population growth, and for normal behavior; (2) food, water, air, light, minerals, or other nutritional or physiological requirements; (3) cover or shelter;
Expressive Elements of Music
The organization of pitches around a central pitch and modality.
the pattern of beats by which the time-span of a piece of music or a section is measured.
the underlying pulse of music
volume in music; piano (soft) and forte (loud)
clear and meaningful rendition of music; diction
the separation of a continuous melodic and harmonic line into smaller units.
the fluctuation in pitch and volume in a musical tone.
the quality of the sound; tone color, distinguishing between instruments or between vowel sounds even.
the manner in which all the musical elements are treated which associates a work with others by time.
the tune of music; a combination of pitch and rhythm.
The pace of music; speed; rate of the beats.
the time element of music, composed of beat, tempo, and patterns of duration. Determined by accent and/or duration of tones.
Most Covered Topic in Health Education
Communicable and chronic diseases
Maturing Point (ceramics)
The point when the clay is rid of all gases
Marie clay, 1966, describe the behaviors seen in young children when they use books and writing materials to imitate reading and writing activities, even though the children cannot actually read and write in the conventional sense.
Question Answer Relationship
Helps students understand that much of what is gained from reading does not come directly from the text. The teacher uses three types of questions:
• the right on the page,
• thethink and search,
• and the on my own.
The Right On The Page
Questions can be found directly from the text
The Think and Search
Questions can be directly inferred from the text
The On My Own
Questions are related to the students own experiences or ideas.
Necessary for students to decode and spell polysyllabic words
The ability to see prefixes, suffixes, endings and root words
Purposes that determine audience
A commentary on a piece of writing; the ability to objectify language as a process as well as an artifact.
Seeks to affect the reader's feelings or to persuade the reader
Personal and emotional writing without regard to form or other writing conventions like spelling, punctuation and verb agreement.
EX: Poetry, journal entries, letters, and free-writing
Seeks to inform the reader about something outside of the writing.
Three Developmental Writing Stages (Alexander Luria)
Undifferentiated Stage (3-5 yrs)
Prewriting or pre-instrumental. The child does not distinguish marks on the page as writing.
Differentiated Stage (From age 4)
The child intentionally builds a relationship between marks on the page and written expression. The child uses marks to represent words. Short marks represent shorter words or phrases. Longer marks represent longer words or phrases.
Pictographic Stage (4-6 yrs)
The child represents words with defined marks. Writing is used as a conceptual act.
the reading of a text by several students in unison.
a teacher, trained assistant or older reader reads the passage first. The partner reader then rereads the passage as quickly and accurately as possible. The _______ reader and the other reader than ask one another questions about the text or summarize what they understand from the text.
students rehearse a script until they are highly fluent. Then they can perform for a larger group.
n exercise, test, or assessment consisting of a portion of text with certain words removed, where the participant is asked to replace the missing words.
CLOZE score under 40%
Frustration reading level
CLOZE score between 40% and 60%
Instructional reading level
CLOZE score above 60%
Independent reading level
Informal Phonics Inventory
Assesses a reader's phonetic skill acquisition
What are the first three subsets of an informal phonics inventory
Consonant sounds, Digraphs, and Beginning Consonant Blends
sound when two or more letters join to make a new sound: ch, sh, th, wh
Beginning consonant blends
come before ending consonant blends
Bl in blip comes before lp in help
Immediate recognition in reading; sight words.
Having good intuition about numbers and their
leads to understanding the concept of
one-to-one correspondence; forms the basis for our number system.
Children need to look at the characteristics of different items and find characteristics that are the same.
big/little, hot/cold, smooth/rough, tall/short, heavy/light
Foundational to our number system.
Children have to be able to put items in an _____
so they are counted once and only once.
Instant recognition of a number pattern without
the appropriation and use of signs as a facet of psychological development; street signs, mnemonic devices, etc.
Four Science Instructional Themes
• constancy and change,
• and scale.
Any collection of things that have some influence on one another; objects, organisms, machines, processes, ideas, numbers, or organizations.
Simplified imitation of something that we hope can help us understand it better; a device, a plan, a drawing, an equation, a computer program, or even just a mental image.
Constancy and change
change helps them understand nature, technology, and social patterns; conservation, equilibrium, and symmetry.
A system or series of marks used for measuring or registering
a logical process in which multiple premises, all believed true or found true most of the time, are combined to obtain a specific conclusion; specific to general.
a logical process in which a conclusion is based on the concordance of multiple premises that are generally assumed to be true; general to specific; top down.
EX: Atoms ---- subatomic particles --- charges.
Lost Wax Method
Used in sculpture; The artist makes a wax model of an object, which is then encased in a mold. The wax is then melted and allowed to run out of a small hole in the mold. The mold is then used to create a sculpture.
Colors that contain a common color, though in different proportions. Are near each other on the color wheel, create harmony
EX: green and blue, because they both contain blue
Red, green, blue, yellow
A mix of primary colors
A blend of secondary colors
oppose each other on the color wheel, cause colors to be more vibrant. Create contrast.
a child can correctly sound out letters but struggles to recognize letter patterns. These children may rely on phonetic spelling.
Six Principles and Standards for School Mathematics
• The Equity Principle,
• The Curriculum Principle,
• The Teaching Principle,
• The Learning Principle,
• The Assessment Principle,
• The Technology Principle
The Equity Principle
Excellence in mathematics education requires equity—high expectations and strong support for all students.
The Curriculum Principle
A curriculum is more than a collection of activities: it must be coherent, focused on important mathematics, and well articulated across the grades
The Teaching Principle
Effective mathematics teaching requires understanding what students know and need to learn and then challenging and supporting them to learn it well.
The Learning Principle
Students must learn mathematics with understanding, actively building new knowledge from experience and prior knowledge.
The Assessment Principle
Assessment should support the learning of important mathematics and furnish useful information to both teachers and students.
The Technology Principle
Technology is essential in teaching and learning mathematics; it influences the mathematics that is taught and enhances students' learning.
The Five Themes of Geography
Position on the earth's surface
Physical and human characteristics
Shaping the landscape; the degree to which humans have impacted their local environment.
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