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Focus on the process of socialization.

Social Process Theories

Focus on the process of socialization


-The process in which people learn via interaction with significant others what they must know in order to function in society

Differential Association

-Criminal Behavior is learned
-Via Interaction/Communication with others
-Within intimate personal groups
-Includes techniques, motives, drives, rationalizations and attitudes (how+why)
-learned from definitions of legal codes as favorable or unfavorable
-*Delinquent if excess of definitions in favor of law violations*
-Vary in frequency, duration, priority and intensity

Social Learning Theory

-Learning process operates in the content of Social Structure
Four Factors:
1)Differential Association
2)Differential Reinforcement

Social Structure and Social Learning

-Social Structure->Social Psychological Process->Criminal Behavior->Crime Rate

5 Techniques of Neutralization

1)Denial of Crime
2)Denial of injury, "didn't hurt anyone with crime"
3)Denial of victim, "they had it coming"
4)Condemnation of condemner, criticize person condemning them
5)Appeal to higher loyalties, "someone else said I could"

Control/Bonding Theory

-Why do people not commit crime?:
2)Commitment, too much time/energy invested in conventional world
3)Involvement, no time for crime
4)Belief, believes in norms, values, and behavior

General Theory of Crime

-Crime a result of opportunity + low self-control
-Low self control = more likely to engage in criminal activity

Analogous Behavior

-Risky but not criminal behaviors
-Smoking, Drinking, Drugs, Accidents, Unsafe Sec, etc...

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