PA Exam 4
Terms in this set (57)
What term is the upward thrust of water called?
What term is when a body immersed in a liquid experiences an upward force equal to the weight of the liquid displaced?
What percent of body weight is dispersed when the body is fully submerged?
What term is the perpendicular pressure exerted by the water on immersed objects?
How much more greater specific heat than air does water have?
4 times more
How much more greater thermal conductivity does water have than air?
25 times more
What can water immersion increase in Renal patients?
Urine output and sodium/potassium excretion
What type of thermal effect occurs when the patient, body part, or water are all still?
What thermal effect occurs when the patient, body part, or water are moving
What is the thermal effect when a loss of heat from the body occurs when the water or air is cooler than the patient?
What is the thermal effect when a loss of heat occurs by sweating and drying of water on skin exposed to air?
What is the term for the tendency of water molecules to adhere to each other?
What is the term for the tendency of water molecules to adhere to molecules of other substances?
What aquatic therapy technique is modeled after Tai Chi and yogic breathing techniques, and is performed in a hands off manner with PT visually imaging complex patterns of patient?
What aquatic therapy technique is modeled after proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) and patient's are instructed in a series of functional, spiral, and diagonal patterns?
What aquatic therapy technique is modeled after Knupfer exercises and PNF, and patient's are instructed in a series of movement or relaxation patterns while positioned horizontally and supported by rings/floats?
Bad Ragaz Ring Method
What aquatic therapy technique is modeled after the Feldenkrais method, and the patient moves in a sequence of movements based on early stage of infant development in slow, rhythmic therapeutic movements and deep breathing?
Fluid Moves (Aquatic Feldenkrais)
What aquatic therapy technique is when the patient is held or cradled in the water while provider destabilizes them in order to teach balance and postural control?
What aquatic therapy technique uses swim stroke training and modification with intent to rehabilitate, and positions patient horizontally and is instructed to modify and execute various swim strokes?
Swim Stroke Training & Modification
What aquatic therapy technique uses a set of principles guiding clinicians to design a treatment program for reducing client's disabilities, and can be best described as a task-oriented approach emphasizing functional skills?
Task-Type Training Approach
What aquatic therapy technique is modeled after Zen Shiatsu, and patient is held or cradled in warm water while provider stabilizes or moves one segment of the body?
What are the ten contraindications of soft tissue mobilization?
2. Severe Pain
4. Recent serious injury
5. Pathological skin issue
6. Open Wounds
7. Lymph/Circulatory Pathological conditions
8. Area of active bleeding
9. Acute inflammation
What are the four precautions of soft tissue mobilization?
1. Abnormal sensation
2. Low BP
What 6 substances does massage help with the movement of?
2. Venous blood
4. Lung secretions
5. Intestinal contents
6. Hematoma contents
What 7 structures does massage help with the mobilization of?
1. Muscle fibers
2. Muscle masses
4. Tendons in sheaths
5. skin/subcutaneous tissue
6. Scar tissue
What are the 6 psychological effects of massage?
2. Anxiety/Tension relief
3. Stimulation of physical activity
4. Pain relief
5. Feeling of well-being
What are the three characteristics of ideal hands for massage?
What are the characteristics of an ideal treatment table?
1. Adjustable height
2. Face/Nose hole
3. Three sections
4. Adjustable forearm rests
5. Casters & Lock/Lift mechanism
What is the most effective stances for STM?
Standing Fall-Out Position (Walk Standing)
What are possible lubricants for STM?
2. Water & Soap
3. Oils, Creams, and Lotions
What direction of force is towards the heart, and involves venous lymphatic flow?
What direction of force is away from the heart, and involves atrial flow?
What is the general guidelines of the rate and rhythm of strokes in STM?
15 strokes per minute, and 7 inches per second
What type of strokes tend to be more relaxing?
What type of strokes tend to be more stimulating?
What type of pressure produces a strong stimulation and may increase patient's tensions and pain?
What type of pressure produces mild stimulation and may induce relaxation and decrease pain?
What are the three types of massage?
What is the purpose of Effleurage massage?
To move contents of the superficial veins and lymph vessels
What is the rate of Effleurage massage?
6-7 inches per second
What are the four effects of Effleurage massage?
1. Stimulation of superficial blood flow
2. Local and general relaxation
3. Pain relief
4. Mobilization of skin/subcutaneous tissue
What are four variations of Effleurage massage?
2. Bilateral Tree
3. Three Count Trapezius
4. Horizontal Strokes
What are the four main techniques of Petrissage massage?
2. Picking Up
4. Skin Rolling
What Petrissage technique is when pressure is applied in circular motions with palmer surface of the hand and pads/tips of fingers/thumbs and pressure increased during 1st half of circle decreased during 2nd half?
What Petrissage technique is when the tissue is grasped with the whole hand, thumb is usually abducted and initial pressure is upward then the tissue is grasped and lifted away from the underlying structures, squeezed and released?
What Petrissage technique is when the tissues are grasped and lifted as in picking up, however two hands are used alternately in the line of the axis of the muscle?
What Petrissage technique is when the hands side by side, thumbs abducted and touching, the skin and subcutaneous tissues are gathered in the palms and then rolled by the thumbs?
What is the rate of Petrissage massage?
4-6 inches per second
What are the 5 effects of Petrissage massage?
1. Mobilization of muscle tissue
2. Stimulation of deeper circulation
4. Pain relief
5. Mobilization of skin and subcutaneous tissue (skin rolling only)
What is the purpose of Tapotment massage?
Tissue stimulation and to loosen secretions when performed over lungs
What are the four distinct types of Tapotment?
What are the three effects of Tapotment?
1. Stimulation of muscle activity
2. Stimulation of deep circulation
3. Mobilization of lung secretions
What are the three classifications of Friction Massage?
What is the purpose of friction massage?
Mobilize adhesions in tendons, ligaments, joint capsules, and muscle tissue
What is the purpose of Vibration/Shaking technique?
Assist with removal of secretions from lungs
What is the most common factor that precipitates soft tissue pain and functional impairment?
What are the four dysfunctional physiologic factors?
1. Scar tissue adhesions
2. Lymphatic stasis & interstitial swlling
3. Thixotropy-dehydrated tissue
4. Intermolecular cross-linking
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