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Wrote "On the Revolution of the Celestial Spheres" which argued a heliocentric view of the universe


built the first observatory for observing the heavens


provided mathematical backing for heliocentrism and showed that planets orbit the sun in elliptical orbits


Used a telescope to observe the sun, moon, and planets; was forced to appear at the Inquisition to defend his beliefs

Francis Bacon

Believed in inductive reasoning through observation and experimentation, studied empiricism to learn about the natural world


used the deductive method, argued that mathematical and mechanical principles provided the key to understanding all of nature


In "Principia Mathematica," he explained his universal law of gravitation, that planets and moons move at uniform speeds proportional to their weight and distance from the sun


dissected human bodies to make advancements in anatomy


argued for constitutionalism by claiming that people were rational and capable of making their own decisions in government. Wrote "Two Treatises of Government" which criticized absolutism and justified the Glorious Revolution


Wrote "Leviathan" to show that people were basicall self-interested and greedy and needed a strong king to provide order, favored absolutism


Chief editor of the first "Encyclopedia", a multi-volume book about science, religion, industry and society

Adam Smith

Wrote Wealth of Nations, a book that is considered the "bible of capitalism"


believed that the "general will" (majority rule) should rule the nation, wrote "The Social Contract"

William Harvey

Explained the way the heart pumped blood that circulates throughout the human body


Enlightenment philosopher who criticized the Catholic church, believed in tolerance, and favored enlightened despotism


Believed that there should be checks and balances in government through creating three separate branches.

Maria Theresa

ruled Austria, maintained control over Austria during the War of Austian Succession


Wrote "On Crimes and Punishments," which argued against the use of torture

Joseph II

ruler of Austria who promoted religious tolerance and made many educational reforms

scientific method

Using inductive and deductive reasoning to create a hypothesis, conduct an experiment, and draw conclusions


Those who want to end slavery


A person who believes in a higher power that created the universe, but who does not intervene in the daily lives of people. Natural laws govern the universe, not by a personal God.

enlightened despots

Rulers who tried to promote reform without giving up their own supreme power


Intellectual movement to apply reason to solve social problems

Royal Society

A group of scientists in England that was sponsored by the government to cooperate and share new ideas

Laissez-faire economics

Advocates a "hands off" approach from the government in matters involving the economy


French intellectuals committed to solving social problems through reason


Artistic movement that glorified nature, emotion, genius and imagination.


Informational gatherings sponsored by wealthy women that provided a forum for debate and new ideas

social contract

All political authority comes from the people, the people establish government to keep them safe

classical liberalism

Belief in liberty of the individual and equality before the law. Belief in economic freedom without interference from the government.

Seven Years War

Austria's attempt to regain Silesia from Prussia. Used diplomacy to gain Russia and France as allies. Also included fighting between England and France over North American colonies.


Female Enlightenment philosopher who promoted political and educational equality for women.


Invented the microscope to observe micro-organisms and blood cells.

Treaty of Paris

Ended the Seven Years War. Gave England all of the French territory in North America. Prussia retained Silesia and became more powerful.

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