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35 terms

Chp 16 Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment - Terms and Names

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Copernicus
Wrote "On the Revolution of the Celestial Spheres" which argued a heliocentric view of the universe
Brahe
built the first observatory for observing the heavens
Kepler
provided mathematical backing for heliocentrism and showed that planets orbit the sun in elliptical orbits
Galileo
Used a telescope to observe the sun, moon, and planets; was forced to appear at the Inquisition to defend his beliefs
Francis Bacon
Believed in inductive reasoning through observation and experimentation, studied empiricism to learn about the natural world
Descartes
used the deductive method, argued that mathematical and mechanical principles provided the key to understanding all of nature
Newton
In "Principia Mathematica," he explained his universal law of gravitation, that planets and moons move at uniform speeds proportional to their weight and distance from the sun
Vesalius
dissected human bodies to make advancements in anatomy
Locke
argued for constitutionalism by claiming that people were rational and capable of making their own decisions in government. Wrote "Two Treatises of Government" which criticized absolutism and justified the Glorious Revolution
Hobbes
Wrote "Leviathan" to show that people were basicall self-interested and greedy and needed a strong king to provide order, favored absolutism
Diderot
Chief editor of the first "Encyclopedia", a multi-volume book about science, religion, industry and society
Adam Smith
Wrote Wealth of Nations, a book that is considered the "bible of capitalism"
Rousseau
believed that the "general will" (majority rule) should rule the nation, wrote "The Social Contract"
William Harvey
Explained the way the heart pumped blood that circulates throughout the human body
Voltaire
Enlightenment philosopher who criticized the Catholic church, believed in tolerance, and favored enlightened despotism
Montesquieu
Believed that there should be checks and balances in government through creating three separate branches.
Maria Theresa
ruled Austria, maintained control over Austria during the War of Austian Succession
Beccaria
Wrote "On Crimes and Punishments," which argued against the use of torture
Joseph II
ruler of Austria who promoted religious tolerance and made many educational reforms
scientific method
Using inductive and deductive reasoning to create a hypothesis, conduct an experiment, and draw conclusions
abolitionists
Those who want to end slavery
deism
A person who believes in a higher power that created the universe, but who does not intervene in the daily lives of people. Natural laws govern the universe, not by a personal God.
enlightened despots
Rulers who tried to promote reform without giving up their own supreme power
Enlightenment
Intellectual movement to apply reason to solve social problems
Royal Society
A group of scientists in England that was sponsored by the government to cooperate and share new ideas
Laissez-faire economics
Advocates a "hands off" approach from the government in matters involving the economy
philosophes
French intellectuals committed to solving social problems through reason
Romanticism
Artistic movement that glorified nature, emotion, genius and imagination.
salons
Informational gatherings sponsored by wealthy women that provided a forum for debate and new ideas
social contract
All political authority comes from the people, the people establish government to keep them safe
classical liberalism
Belief in liberty of the individual and equality before the law. Belief in economic freedom without interference from the government.
Seven Years War
Austria's attempt to regain Silesia from Prussia. Used diplomacy to gain Russia and France as allies. Also included fighting between England and France over North American colonies.
Wollstonecraft
Female Enlightenment philosopher who promoted political and educational equality for women.
Leeuwenhoek
Invented the microscope to observe micro-organisms and blood cells.
Treaty of Paris
Ended the Seven Years War. Gave England all of the French territory in North America. Prussia retained Silesia and became more powerful.