Wrote "On the Revolution of the Celestial Spheres" which argued a heliocentric view of the universe
provided mathematical backing for heliocentrism and showed that planets orbit the sun in elliptical orbits
Used a telescope to observe the sun, moon, and planets; was forced to appear at the Inquisition to defend his beliefs
Believed in inductive reasoning through observation and experimentation, studied empiricism to learn about the natural world
used the deductive method, argued that mathematical and mechanical principles provided the key to understanding all of nature
In "Principia Mathematica," he explained his universal law of gravitation, that planets and moons move at uniform speeds proportional to their weight and distance from the sun
argued for constitutionalism by claiming that people were rational and capable of making their own decisions in government. Wrote "Two Treatises of Government" which criticized absolutism and justified the Glorious Revolution
Wrote "Leviathan" to show that people were basicall self-interested and greedy and needed a strong king to provide order, favored absolutism
Chief editor of the first "Encyclopedia", a multi-volume book about science, religion, industry and society
believed that the "general will" (majority rule) should rule the nation, wrote "The Social Contract"
Enlightenment philosopher who criticized the Catholic church, believed in tolerance, and favored enlightened despotism
Believed that there should be checks and balances in government through creating three separate branches.
Using inductive and deductive reasoning to create a hypothesis, conduct an experiment, and draw conclusions
A person who believes in a higher power that created the universe, but who does not intervene in the daily lives of people. Natural laws govern the universe, not by a personal God.
A group of scientists in England that was sponsored by the government to cooperate and share new ideas
Advocates a "hands off" approach from the government in matters involving the economy
Informational gatherings sponsored by wealthy women that provided a forum for debate and new ideas
All political authority comes from the people, the people establish government to keep them safe
Belief in liberty of the individual and equality before the law. Belief in economic freedom without interference from the government.
Seven Years War
Austria's attempt to regain Silesia from Prussia. Used diplomacy to gain Russia and France as allies. Also included fighting between England and France over North American colonies.
Female Enlightenment philosopher who promoted political and educational equality for women.