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chapter 2 biology

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Inorganic Compounds
Water Oxygen Carbon Dioxide Minerals W.O.C.M
Water
polar
Polar Molecules
slight charge at each end
Polar
uneven distribution of electrons
Cohesion
attraction between alike things
Adhesion
Atrraction to different substances
Uses for water
transport medium, dillute metabolic waste, helps maintain a constant body temperature
Cappilary
water moving up a plant due to cohesion
Surface Tension
how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
Surface Tension reasons
polarity and cohesion
how many Hydrogen Bonds
each water molecule can form up to 4
Film of surface tension
hydrogen bonds constantly forming and breaking
oxygen
required for cellular respiration
cellular resperation
combining food with oxygen to release energy from the food
minerals
any element that occurs naturally
organic compounds
C.L.P.N carbohydrates, liquids, proteins, nucleic acids
carbon
all organic coumpounds contain carbon but not everything with carbon is organic
covalent bonds
sharing electrons
organic compunds>3 things
1. it can live with itself
2. it can form rings or chains
3. it can form up to 4 covalent bonds
mixture
material composed of 2 or more elements
2 types of mixtures
solutions and suspensions
solutions
ions breaking from crystal ions dispersing in water froming a solutions
solute
being dissolved
solvent
what does the dissolving
suspensions
mixtures of undissolved materials and water
example: blood
Ph scale
7 is neutral
ph scale
indicate the concentration of h+
acids
any compuond that forms h+ in solutions
last 5 safety symbols
Heating, sharp objects, chemically corrosive, poison, electric shock
polymers
large molecules made by combining smaller compounds called monomers
monomers
small compounds
biosynthesis
building of life, adding monomers to create polymers
organic compounds contain
carbon and can form rings or chains
carbohydrates
energy, quick energy foods
monosaccharides
simple sugars- glucose, fructose, lactose
3 carbohydrates
carbon hydrogen and oxygen
c6 h12 o6
1:2:1 ratio
isomers
same chem formula but different structure
sucrose
glucose plus fructose, sugar
maltose
glucose plus glucose, malt sugar
lactose
glucose plus glactose, dairy sugar
dissacharides
c12 h22 o12 add two monosaccharides, when produced awater molecule is lost
hydrolysis
to break apart and add water
dissacharides
putting 2 monosaccharides together DEHYRDATION SYNTHESIS
polysaccharide
3 or more monosaccharides///EXAMPLES starch and cellulose
starch
long chain of glucose, andimals convert it to glycogen
cellulose
produced by plants/tough to digest/fiber in cellulose diet/keeps you regular
proteins
made of aminoacids held by peptide bonds
3 bonded amino acids
polypeptide
2 bonded aminoacids
diapeptide
protein functions
cell growth and repair
produce enzymes hormones and antibodies
normal cell function
nucleic acids
dna and rna
dna
genetic code
rna
funtions during protein synthesis
liquids
fats oils and waxes/steroids
traits of liquids
not soluble in water, stored energy
fats
fatty acide and glycerol/solids
oils
liquids at room temp
wax
protection uses
steroids
not soluble in water found in nature as toad venom and plant poisons and hormones/nerve tissue
enzymes
proteins that act like a catalyst/speeds up digestive process
enzyme theories
lock and key/ induced fit model
active site
where enzyme and substrate meet
endergonic reaticon
ex. photosynthesis- energy being absorbed
exergonic reaction
releasing energy from reaction ex: cellular resperation
active and passive transport
substances being carried in and out of the cell
active transport
abnormal flow of molecules from lower to higher concentration requires EXTRA energy
passive
normal flow of molecule from higher to lower concentration requires LESS energy
types of passive transport
diffusion-movement of ions molecules and atoms
osmosis-movement of water molecules across a cell membrane