MGMT 450 Chapter 11
Terms in this set (67)
What is a requirement analysis? Explain.
A requirement analysis is undertaken once a project has approval to proceed. In this process, stakeholders identify the features the system will need and then prioritize them as mandatory, preferred, or nonessential. Gathering these requirements entails many meetings, interviews, and reviews of the way existing processes unfold. The person who leads this analysis needs a solid background in business management and information systems, but also outstanding listening and consensus-building skills. The stakeholders will have different views about how processes actually work and how they should be improved, especially when their own jobs are involved. A well-done requirements analysis should also uncover opportunities to optimize business processes and even eliminate some of them.
Which of the following is an advantage of customization?
It helps add competitive advantage to processes that are not easy for an organization to alter.
Which of the following is an advantage of custom system development?
It is tailored close to the organization's needs.
Which of the following is involved in integration testing?
testing the new system's interfaces with other software components it links to
A disadvantage of ________ is that the new system's modules may be tightly integrated, so implementing one without the others may create some confusion and require temporary interfaces to the old systems.
The ________ procures the best systems for each application regardless of the vendor.
best of breed approach
Prepackaged software is a good option for business functions that do not offer competitive advantage.
Which of the following is a drawback of the waterfall method?
It is unable to adapt to changes of the business landscape.
A disadvantage of custom system development is that it involves high overall cost and requires more time to go live.
________ is a process in which stakeholders identify the features that a project will need and then prioritize them as mandatory, preferred, or nonessential.
Which of the following do all types of information system tests mimic?
events the system will handle when it goes live
A(n) ________ refers to an approach in which organizations strongly prefer systems that are offered by a single vendor, especially the one that supplies the ERP.
Which of the following is the function of the requirements definition document?
specifying what features a system should have
Which of the following is a disadvantage of a prepackaged software?
It requires the organization to change its business processes.
A use case diagram is used to indicate ________
how different types of users will interact with the system
________ is a driver of information systems development which touches on security, privacy, safety, and regulatory compliance.
Screen attractiveness is a component of ________.
Designers use the unified modeling language to ________.
standardize graphics symbols and notations to improve communication and clarity
Mike Reid is on the analysis phase of a project which is developing smile shutter cameras. Which of the following analyses is he using if he is optimizing and prioritizing the integral elements of this camera such as the red eye removal, blink detection, and face identification?
Which of the following occurs during phased implementation?
focusing on launching modules in steps rather than all at once
Jonathan Torris has joined a new software company in Manhattan and has been allotted with the task of working on the initial phase of developing an internal communication system. Which of the following is he working on if he is assessing how the system will help in efficiently coordinating projects, increasing interaction between team members, and determining the feasibility of the project?
Which of the following reasons explains why waterfall methods are still widely in use?
It has a logical and familiar structure which is comfortable to use.
Which of the following will take place in a parallel implementation?
launching the new system while the old one is still running
In the ________ method, tasks are not sequenced according to the SDLC and many activities occur simultaneously.
Johanna Taylor, a developer at the newly established Leo Technologies, is developing a Web site for the company. Which of the following phases is she working on if she is making decisions on increased bandwidth, size, and capacity issues which will help handle growing amounts of visits by clients and customers?
Which of the following features does the usability requirement embody?
high task efficiency
An early form of business process management, which was developed as a means to make sweeping changes, eliminating all processes that did not add value was known as ________.
business process reengineering
Which of the following is used to handle increased Web site visits?
________ is the best choice when a system supports common business functions, such as financial or human resource management.
A systems integrator is a special kind of consultant who has expertise in making the different hardware and software components of an information system work together.
Tom Daniels, an employee of a telecommunications company, is developing a software for employees to activate value-added services in a matter of seconds. Which of the following requirements is he developing if he is working on the visual appeal of the interface and an easy-to-learn software?
________ is a peer review process in which programmers familiar with the project and the development environment check over one another's work to ensure it is well documented and properly written.
What is a waterfall method? Discuss how it is different from the iterative method.
In the waterfall method, the SDLC tasks occur sequentially, with one activity starting only after the previous one has been completed. The analysis phase nails down the requirements, and at that point the developers estimate the time and resources needed to complete the project. Different people may be engaged in each task, and they hand off their work to the next team when their part is done. While the waterfall method estimates time and resources needed based on the analysis of requirements, the iterative methods do the reverse. They focus on the time available until the next release, or iteration, and the development team determines how many of the requirements it can deliver in that time frame.
A direct implementation process launches the new system while the old one is still running and employees either do their jobs twice, once on each system, or two separate teams handle the same processes, one team on each system.
With the help of project and issue tracking softwares, developers can upload diagrams and documentation, comment on activity, describe challenges, report bugs, and request assistance.
Lee Hecklin works for Burnett Worldwide, an advertising company in California. Lee is developing a software to improve the process of coordination with clients. Which of the following requirements is he concentrating on if he is interfacing the client's software with the discussion forum and the company blog?
What is a parallel implementation process? Discuss some of its drawbacks.
A parallel implementation process launches the new system while the old one is still running. Employees either do their jobs twice, once on each system, or two separate teams handle the same processes, one team on each system. However, parallel implementation is very expensive and thus is usually in place for only a short period. Also, if the old system is being retired because it bungled some processes, the comparisons might not be valid.
What is rapid application development? Explain.
A common approach used in iterative methods that helps software developers bring an application to life more quickly is called rapid application development. Developers create a software prototype that they can share with users and get their feedback to make corrections and improvements before a lot of effort is spent building a fully functioning version. End users are much more helpful when they can see a prototype even if most of it doesn't actually work. The approach works well with the overlapping phases typical of iterative development, and it is often used in other software development approaches as well.
Escapade, a travel house in Sydney, uses an implementation process which is expensive and used for only a short period of time. Which of the following is the company using if it launches the new system while the old one is still running and employees do their jobs twice, once on each system?
Components such as response time, availability, and scalability are part of ________ requirements.
Which of the following functions does the version control software perform?
allowing developers to track code versions acting like a library with checkout procedures
________ is an important part of the planning process which examines whether an initiative is viable from technical, financial, and legal standpoints.
The ________ phase of the waterfall method involves nailing down the requirements, at which point the developers estimate the time and resources needed to complete the project.
Which of the following is a disadvantage of custom system development?
It requires a long time to go live.
A ________ is an invitation to software companies to submit a formal proposal, including a detailed description of their products, services, and costs.
request for proposal
Discuss the testing phase of the systems development life cycle.
Testing goes on during the development phase, as individual modules are completed. When the system has been completed, it undergoes much more rigorous testing. Each test mimics events the system will handle when it goes live. The test cases are carefully documented so the developers can make corrections in case of any failures. Software tools help tremendously with this testing as well. Other software tools can check for security holes, compliance with accessibility regulations, performance under loads, broken web links, and more.
The ________ refers to a process the organizations put into place to manage bug fixes and change requests. In this process, IT staff help clarify the revision and development requests and estimate the resources required to accomplish them.
change control process
________ is the only strategy for small systems, but the risk of switching back and forth between old and new modules can be high for large-scale implementations of complex software involving thousands of employees.
A major advantage of the ________ implementation is that people whose roles span modules do not have to switch back and forth between old and new modules.
Which of the following is an example of a systems integrator?
A consultant who ensures that hardware and software components of an IS work together.
What are some of the key elements that need to be kept in mind during the design phase? Discuss.
The design phase captures all aspects of how the system's components will function together to accomplish the goal, using descriptions, models, and diagrams. It is the technical blueprint for the whole system, with all the fine print and details. The choice of software development environments and hardware architecture is a critical one. Although a particular software development environment might be marginally more efficient for a specific project, the disadvantages of a fragmented, poorly integrated architecture are too costly to ignore. The choice will also be affected by the experience and capabilities of the IT staff. This phase also addresses usability and considers the needs of all the different end users who will interact with the system. End users with disabilities should also be considered in this phase.
Testing is a part of the ________ phase.
Which of the following functions does a project- and issue-tracking software perform?
maintaining a complete history of project activity, including dates and tasks assigned
Independent testers are critical in testing information systems because ________.
programmers are inept at testing their own code
How does organizational culture play an important part in choosing a particular software development strategy over another?
The organization's culture plays an important part in choosing a particular software development strategy. Moving to an agile development approach for instance, means much more than programming in pairs or adopting the colorful scrum vocabulary. It is a cultural shift that many development teams may find uncomfortable. Agile methods need developers who welcome changes in requirements, because they understand that the ultimate goal is to develop software that users really want, not just to finish a project on time. On the other hand, the waterfall method stresses sequenced tasks, so developers who complete their task on time consider themselves successful even if the project itself is falling behind. But agile teams are collectively responsible for delivery, and team members must help one another achieve the goal to be successful. The team must be cohesive and trusting, since each member's job and career may depend on the whole team's performance.
Which of the following is a component of security requirements?
Green Idol, a non-government organization that focuses on the environment, needs to develop a software which will help interface and communicate efficiently with supporters around the world. Which of the following requirements should Green Idol concentrate on if it wants to handle growing amounts of responses from activists and quick communication exchanges between volunteers and new media campaigners?
A distinguishing feature of ________ programming is that developers work in pairs, reviewing one another's work, providing each other with feedback and testing the code as it is written.
Which of the following is an advantage of a prepakaged software?
It requires shorter implementation time.
Sam Torres, an operations manager at a content management firm, is required to monitor the flow of people coming in and going out of the organization and ensure data privacy through the process of encryption. Which of the following requirements is he focusing on while tracking the authentification of people and ensuring privacy of data?
A ________ implementation launches the new system while the old one is still running and employees either do their jobs twice or two separate teams handle the same processes.
A feasibility study helps determine whether an initiative is feasible if the technologies associated with it are mature to support the project's goals.
Which of the following is the primary goal of the development phase?
converting a design into a fully operational information system
The ________ phase is a technical blueprint for the whole system which captures all aspects of how a system's components will function together to accomplish goals, using descriptions and models.
________ involves programmers checking the functionality of small modules of code during the development phase.
Which of the following should be undertaken in a design phase?
keeping in mind end users with disabilities
Joshua Lee is an employee at Footprints, a travel company, who is working on a software to answer and track traveler requests efficiently. Which of the following phases is the software currently in, if Joshua is converting the design into an operational information system?