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Hallmarks of cancer
Terms in this set (9)
Sustaining proliferative signaling
Normal tissues control the production and release of growth promoting cells. However, cancer cells deregulate these signals. This allows them to enter the cell cycle and continue to divide. These signals influence cell survival and energy metabolism.
Evading growth suppressors
Cancer cells diregard checkpoint signals that normally pause growth and division. This allows the cancer cells to grow and divide unchecked. Related to loss of tumor suppressor genes.
Resisting cell death
Normal cells intiate apoptosis in response to DNA damage. Cancer cells can by pass or ignore apoptosis signals which coupled with evading growth surpressors allows them to divide and grow
Enabling replicative immunity
Activate telomerease to restore and maintain telemeres at end of chromosomes. Protects chromosome which retain their ability to divide over and over again.
The process of angiogenesis is critical for sustained tumor growth. Tumor cells have aquired the ability to singal imput from pro-angiogenic growth factors allowing them to deliever oxygen and nutrients for their gain.
Activating invasion and metastasis
Cancer cells can change the way they attach to other cells to spread to other areas in the body. This is intergal so they can escape death and establish themselves elsewhere.
Reprogramming of energy metabolism
Emerging hallmark which changes their glucose metabolism. They upregulate glucose transporters which gives them the energy they need to divide and grow.
Evading immune destruction
Immune survillence pro actively prevents tumor formation. Cancer cells navigate phases to evade immune destruction
Alternates genomes of cancer cells increasing rates of mutations. This facilitates the acquisition of other hallmarks
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